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Harvard College Library 
Received Maxoh 1893. 

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' 3. 






No. I. 



Professor of Japanese and Philology in the Imperial University; 



Church Missionary Society; 


1887 (20TH YEAR OF MeIJI). 


Tokyo ; 
Printed at the "Japan Mail" Office, Yokohama. 

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In giving this work to the press, the author begs to thank Marquis ToKU- 
GAWA, Marquis Matsumae, and the officials connected with the libraries of 
various public departments, both in Tokyo and in the Island of Yezo, for the 
kind manner in which they have assisted him in his search after books treating 
of Yezo and the Ainos. To Mr. Nagata Hosei, one of the most assiduous and 
successful students of the Aino tongue, he is indebted for many valuable sug- 
gestions with regard to the Aino etymology of Japanese place-names. 

Tokyo, Christmas, 1886. 

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If little is generally known either in Japan or in Europe concerning the 
natives of Yezo, the reason must be sought in the remoteness of the subject 
from topics of general interest. There is no lack of books dealing with the 
Hairy Ainos. Dr. Scheube has weighed and measured them. The Chevalier 
Heinrich von Sicbold has beautifully pourtrayed their utensils. Miss Bird has 
described their customs in her picturesque style. Before the time of these 
foreign travellers, men like Mogami, Mamiya, and Matsuura had recorded in 
print their experiences of travel in every accessible portion of the island. Other 
Japanese had described Aino manners, Aino superstitions and traditions. At 
least one Catholic missionary had penetrated into Yezo as early as the year 
1617. Indeed, the Jesuit Father Froes had indicated, if not clearly asserted, 
the existence of the Ainos in a work published A.D. 1574. The catalogue oj 
Japanese and European books on the subject, appended to the present Memoir, 
includes several hundreds of titles ; and there doubtless still remain many 
others to be unearthed from the dust of old-fashioned libraries. 

It seems somewhat strange that all investigators should hitherto (if such an 
expression be permitted) have contented themselves with looking their subject 
full in the face, when the profile or the back view would have had so much to 
tell. Aino customs are primitive enough. A picture of them is soon finished. 
Probably those only who have themselves stepped out of the circle of civiliza- 
tion into squalid hamlets where no one reads or writes, no one bathes, no one 
knows his own age, no one has ever tasted so much as a few crumbs from the 
rich feast of European thought, can realize the appalling simplicity of savage 
life. But those savage or barbarous tribes, who live in contact with more 
highly cultivated commu x^ ities, may often interest us by their bearing on those 
communities as well as by their own intrinsic peculiarities. The object of the 

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following pages is, by comparing the language and mythology of the Ainos 
with the language and mythology of the early Japanese, to ascertain what sort 
of relationship, if any, exists between the two races, and to shed light on the 
obscure problem of the nature of the population of the Japanese Archipelago 
during late prehistoric times. Thus may be made a beginning to that series 
of linguistic comparisons, which is indicated by Dr. von Schrenck, in his monu- 
mental work on Amur-Land, as the surest key for the unlocking of the mysteries 
of racial afTinity and race-migrations in this portion of Asia. 


The Aino language has hitherto stood outside the pale of philology. Fo- 
reign writers, from Titsingh and Dawydof downwards, have mostly contented 
themselves with collecting lists of words. Even the Japanese, whose acquaint- 
ance with the Ainos dates from the dawn of iheir own history, have done little 
more than collect words, sentences, and a few specimens of such scanty un- 
written literature as the Ainos possess in the shape of rude songs, together 
with translations of certain Japanese edicts. 

The first regular attempt at submitting the language to a grammatical 
analysis was that made by Dr. A. Pfizmaier of Vienna, who, in the year 1851, 
published a work in a hundred and ten pages octavo, entitled " U?iiersuchunge?i 
uber den Bau der Aiyio-Sprache," Considering that this grammar was founded 
on little else than one imperfectly printed Japanese vocabulary, the '* Moshio- 
gttsa^' the results obtained by the Austrian savant are truly marvellous. One 
only regrets, when perusing it, that a fraction of the vast trouble taken in 
collating each passage, comparing each word, noting each apparent gramma- 
tical phenomenon, should not have been devoted to a journey to Aino-land 
itself, where a few months' converse with the natives would have abridged the 
labour of years, — would indeed not only have abridged the labour, but have 
rendered the result so much more trustworthy. As it is. Dr. Pfizmaier's 
^^ Untersuchiingen'^ are rather a monument of learned industry, than a guide 
calculated to lead the student safely to his journey's end. The circumstances 
under which Dr. Pfizmaier worked were such as to render success impossible. 

Many years later, in 1883, Professor J. M. Dixon, then of the Tokyo 
Engineering College, and now of the Imperial University of Japan, published in 
the *' Chrysanthemum " magazine a sketch of Aino grammar founded partly on 
earlier European notices, partly on enquiries made by himself on the spot. 
Unfortunately, the results obtained by this conscientious worker were impaired 
to some extent by the want of that intimate acquaintance with Japanese, which, 
in the absence of a thorough practical knowledge of Aino itself, is the first 
condition of the successful investigation of any subject connected with the 
Island of Yezo, 

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At last the right man set to work in the right way, and a ''Grammar of the 
Ainu"*^ Language/' by John Batchelor, Esq., of the Church Missionary Society, 
is the result. Mr. Batchclor's five years' intercourse with the Ainos in their 
own homes, and close study of the language as it falls from the lips of the 
people, enable him to speak with an authority belonging to no other investiga- 
tor, unless it were Dobrotvorsky, who unfortunately wrote no grammar. For 
this reason, the present writer deemed himself fortunate to be admitted to 
Mr. Batchelor's intimacy at the very time when the ** Ainu Grammar" was in 
course of preparation. He can, from the results of his own Aino studies, 
carried on under a variety of native teachers from different parts of Yezo, 
testify to the general correctness of Mr. Batchelor's views. He has therefore 
been glad to recommend the inclusion in the present volume of the work in 
question. It is one which must, for many years to come, continue to be the 
text-book for those Aino studies which it is the desire of the Imperial Univer- 
sity of Japan to foster. We now await the publication of the Dictionary, which 
Mr. Batchelor promises for next year. When placed in possession of that, the 
student will have all his tools at hand. 

So far as the traditions of the Ainos are concerned, short notices of them 
are to be found in various books, both Japanese and foreign. The best is that 
given by the compilers of the '^ Ezo Fuzoku Isany The present writer, during 
his intercourse with the Ainos in Yezo, went all over the ground again, inter- 
rogating the natives, but carefully abstaining from putting into their mouths 
anything which they did not spontaneously communicate. For leading ques- 
tions are generally answered by barbarians, less in accordance with truth, than 
with that which they believe their interlocutor desires to hear. The result was 
to confirm most, but not all, of that which previous travellers had been told, 
and to add a large store of myths and fairy-tales hitherto not printed in any 
language. A selection of a few of the most representative of these is given in 
Section III. of the present Memoir. 


The first thing that must strike the student of the Aino language is its great 
apparent resemblance to Japanese. The phonetic system is nearly the same 
in both languages. The only marked difference lies in the fact that certain con- 
sonants, viz., k, in, n, p, s, sh, and / may terminate a syllable in Aino, whereas 
the more liquid Japanese tolerates only vowels and (in its modern form) the 
consonant « at the close of syllables. Even in such a matter as the dislike to 

* i4 /////, literally "man," is llie name by which the Ainos designate themselves. Mr. 
Batchelor wishes to brinjr it into pcneial use, as beiii^ the correct native form of the word. 
'J he present writer prefers, when willing English, to follow Ergliyh iisape, and to tay "Aino," 
just as we say '* Portuguese," not Portnguez ; " Hanover," nol Ilaniiover, On such a point 
there should be complete individual liberty. 

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sonant consonants at the beginning of words, Alno agrees with Japanese and 
Korean. Like them, it prefers to begin its words with surds, which, — speaking 
generally, — become sonants only in compounds. In fact, it has what is familiar 
to Japanese students under the name of the system of the '^ Ntgori/' Thus : — 

Single Words. Compounds. 

T f/J^w^^ " metal," aka-gane, " red metal" (" copper "). 

Japanese -^^^^^^ *' temple," furti-dera, "an old temple." 

A- ( kurUf "man," sapa-ne-guru, "head-man." 

Xpo, " child," okkaUo, " male child." 

In the construction of sentences, there is the same agreement. As in 
Japanese, so in Aino, the chief rule of syntax is that explanatory words precede 
the words which they define. Thus the adjective precedes the substantive, the 
adverb the verb, and secondary clauses the principal clause, while the verb of 
the principal clause rounds off the entire sentence. Surely such close corres- 
pondence of construction must point to a community of origin, — must it not? 
and must not Japanese and Aino belong to the same family of speech? 
The answer is that possibly they may, if the word "family" be taken in 
an unusually wide sense, in such a sense, for instance, as that which would 
class Aryan and Semitic together, because both the latter are inflected, because 
both denote by grammatical forms the categories of number and gender, and 
both make little, if any, distinction between the declension of nouns and that 
of adjectives. But as for the close and intimate resemblance between Japanese 
and Aino, which at first strikes the student, it vanishes as soon as the two lan- 
guages are more carefully compared. The paradox of two races so strongly 
contrasted speaking related languages has no foundation in fact. The following 
are the most salient points of difference between Aino and Japanese : — 

I. — Japanese has postpositions only. Aino, besides numerous postposi- 
tions, has also the two prepositions ^, "to," "towards," and o " from ;" thus : 
E chup'pok'Un chup ahun^ " The sun sets to the West." O chup-ka-un chup 
hetukuj " The sun rises from the East." 

2. — The Aino postpositions are often used independently, in a manner 
quite foreign to Japanese idiom, thus : Koro haboy " His mother,'' more liter- 
ally " Of [him] mother." — Tan moshiri ka ta pakno utari tnne utara isambe 
paskuru chironnup ne ruwe nCy " The creatures than which there is nothing 
so numerous in this world are the crows and the foxes." 

3. — Connected with the Aino use of prepositions, is that of formative 
prefixes. Thus the passive is obtained by prefixing a to the active, as 7'aige, 
" to kill ; " a-raigCy " to be killed." A transitive or verbalizing force is conveyed 
by the prefix ^, as //Wyf^, "good;" e-pirika, "to be good to," />., generally, "to 
benefit oneself " ; mik " to bark, " e-mik,^^ to bark at ; a-e-miky " to be barked 
at." The signification of verbs is sometimes intensified by means of the prefix 
/, as nUf "to hear;" i-nu^ "to listen." All this is completely foreign to the 

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Japanese grammatical system, which denotes grammatical relations by means 
of suffixes exclusively. 

4. — The Aino passive has been mentioned incidentally under the preced- 
ing heading. Note that it is a true passive, like that of European languages, — not 
a form corresponding (as does the so-called Japanese passive) to such English 
locutions as ** to get killed," ** to get laughed at." In fact, the habit of 
looking at all actions from an active point of view is one of the characteristics 
of Japanese thought, as expressed in the forms of Japanese grammar. By the 
Ainos, on the other hand, the passive is used more continually even than in 
English, although the abundant use of the passive is one of the features 
distinguishing English from all other Aryan tongues. Thus^ an Aino will say 
Ene a-kari ka isam^ *' There is nothing to be done," literally ** Thus to-be- 
done-thing even is-not," where a Japanese would say Shi-kata ga nai, literally 
'* There is not a way to do." Again, such a sentence as ** In any case you must 
go vi4 Sapporo," would be in Aino Neim neyakka Satporo a-kushy literally, 
" In any case Sapporo is-traversed." In Japanese it would be hard to turn 
such phrases passively at all. Much less would any such passives ever be 
employed either in literature or in the colloquial. 

5. — Aino has great numbers of reflective verbs formed from transitives by 
means of the prefix yai, ** self." Thus yai-erampoken^ '* to be sorry for oneself," 
i.e., " to be disappointed " ; yai-raige, '' to commit suicide " ; yai-kopuntek^ " to 
be glad" (conf. se rSjouir and similar reflectives in French). Japanese has no 
reflective verbs. 

6. — Whereas in Japanese those numerous but rarely used words, which 
foreign students term personal pronouns, are in reality nothing but honorific 
and humble locutions, like the '*thy servant" of Scripture, and such expressions 
as ** Your Excellency," **Sire," etc., Aino has true pronouns. (£'is*'you"; 
kani^ ku and k! are ** I " in the following examples.) As a corollary to this, the 
Aino pronouns are used at every turn, like the pronouns of modern European 
languages, thus : — 

E koro shike^ "Your luggage." 

Kani k!eraman, "I know;" more literally ^' Moi je saisP 
SatporO'kotan ta ohonno k'an kiini ku ramu yakun^ ku koro iwange kuru 
ku tura wa Kek koroka^ iruka Wan kuni ku ramu kusu, ku sak no 
k'ek ruwe ne^ ** Had I known that I should stay so long in Sapporo, I 
would have brought my servant with me. But, as I thought I should 
be here only a short time, I came without one." 

In Japanese, all these sentences would be expressed without the aid of a 
single word corresponding to a personal pronoun ; thus : — 

Go nimotsu^ literally "August luggage." 

Wakarimashita, literally *' Have understood." 

Kahodo nagaku Sapporo ni todomaru to shirimashita naraba^ kerai wo 

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tsurete kiiru hazu de arimashita ga^ wazicka bakari orimashb to omoi- 
viashita mo7i^ desu kara, tsurezu tii kimashita. 

This last Japanese sentence is impossible to translate literally into our lan- 
guage, English (like Aino) idiom insisting on the constant iteration of personal 
pronouns, which in Japanese would be, not merely inelegant, but ridiculous 
and confusing. 

7. — Some traces of the use of '' case," as understood in Aryan grammar, 
exist in the Aino first personal pronoun. The declension is as follows : — 

Nominative. Objective. 

Singular. ku,''\r ^;/, " me." 

Plural. chi, " we." un or /, " us." 

Japanese is devoid of everything of this nature 

8. — Some traces of a plural inflection are found in the conjugation of Aino 
verbs. Four Aino verbs turn singular n into plural /, viz : — 

Singular. Plural. English. 

a/tini, ahup, " to enter," 

oashin, oaship, " to issue." 

ran, rap^ ** to descend." 

san, sap, ** to descend." 

In a few cases the p (or b) appears in a less regular manner. They are :— 

heashij heashpa, ** to begin." 

hechirasa, hechiraspa^ " to blossom." 

hopum\ hopumba, " to fly." 

In the following instances, diUercnt verbs have been assigned by usage to a 
singular or plural acceptation : — 

arapa^ paye, ** to go." 

ek^ ariki (or arahi), ** to come." 

Probably further search would reveal the existence of more such plural forms.* 
Indeed, the Saghalien dialect, if we are to trust Dobrotvorsky as quoted in 
Pfizmaier's ^^ Erortcrungen und Aufkliirungen fiber Atjio^^ retains fragments of 
a plural formation in a few of its substantives as well. Thus kema, ** foot ; " 
kemakiy ** feet ; " itna, '* tooth;" tmah\ ^' teeth." Be this as it may, not only 
has Japanese no plural forms, whether inflectional or agglutinative, but the whole 
idea of grammatical number is as foreign to it as is that of person. 

Thus far we have noted phenomena that occur in Aino, and arc absent 
from Japanese. We now turn to such as are found in Japanese, but not in 
Aino, and observe that : — 

9. — Japanese conjugates its verbs by means of agglutinated suffixes, which, 
in certain moods and tenses, combine so intimately with the root as to be indis- 

*Mr. Bilclicli>r ndds lo the li*^t sinjr. rai'ire, plur. ronnti, *Mo kill." But ibe present 
writer vcnlines to think thai the difference is railier one of signification than of mere number, 
raige meaning ** lo kill,*' and ronnu ** lo massacre." 

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tinguishable from what are termed inflections in the Aryan tongues. Thus, 
from the root ot and the stem otoSj " to drop," we have such conjugational 
forms as otosu the present, otose the imperative, otoshi the ** indefinite form " 
(a sort of gerund or participle), where no analysis has hitherto succeeded in 
discovering the origin of the final vowels. In Aino there is nothing of this 
kind. Save in the rare cases mentioned under heading 8, the whole conjuga- 
tion is managed by auxiliaries. The original verb never varies, excepting 
when r changes to n according to a general phonetic rule which affects all 
classes of words indiscriminately. 

10. — A grammatical device, on which much of Japanese construction 
hinges, is the three-fold division (in the classical form of the language there is 
a fourth) of verbal and adjective forms into what are termed '* attributive,*' 
*' conclusive," and *' indefinite." This system, which is peculiar and compli- 
cated, cannot well be elucidated without entering into details beyond the scope 
of the present Memoir. The curious in such matters are referred to pp. 39, 47, 
86, and 94 of the present writer's " Simplified Grammar of Japanese " 
(Triibner & Co., London, 1886). Suffice it here to say, that each tense of the 
indicative mood of Japanese verbs and adjectives is inflected so as to point out 
the nature of its grammatical agreement with the other words of the sentence, 
and that one of the results of the system is the formation of immensely long 
sentences, all the clauses of which are mutually interdependent, in such wise 
that the bearing of any one verb or adjective as to tense and mood is not 
clinched until the final verb has come to round off the entire period. Of such 
distinctions of ''attributive," *' conclusive," etc., forms, Aino knows nothing. 
They are not represented even by the help of au.xiliaries. 

II. — The whole Japanese language, ancient and modern, written and col- 
loquial, is saturated with the honorific spirit. In Japanese, honorifics supply 
to some extent the place of personal pronouns and of verbal inflections in- 
dicating person. Aino, on the contrary, has no honorifics, unless we give that 
name to such ordinary expressions of politeness as occur in every language. 

12. — A rule of Japanese phonetics excludes the consonant r from the be- 
ginning of words.* In Aino no similar rule exists. Those who have most oc- 
cupied themselves with the Japanese language, will probably be the readiest to 
regard the aversion to initial r as being, not the result of accident (if such an 
expression may be allowed), but truly a radical characteristic ; for it is shared, 
not only by Korean, but by other apparently cognate tongues as far as India. 

13. — Japanese constantly uses what (to adopt European terminology) may 

♦Those whose knowledge of Japanese is limited may be slailled by ihis slalement, taken 
in conjunction with the appeaiance of hundreds of words bej»inninjT with r in the pages of Dr. 
Hepburn's Dictionary. I he explanation of the appaicnl contradiction is, that all such words 
are borrowed from the Cliinese. In the latter lanjruage, the initial is /. But a very soft r is 
the nearest approach, to / of which the Japanese vocal organs are capable. Thus Chinese 
\i becomes Japanese n, Chinese liang becomes Japanese ryo^ etc. 

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be called genitives instead of nominatives. Thus, Hito ga kuru^ literally " The 
coming of the man," for " The man comes/' This is foreign to Aino habits of 

Passing on to further points of contrast between the two languages, we 
notice that : — 

14. — Japanese and Aino treat the idea of negation differently. Aino uses 
an independent negative adverb shomo or seenne, which corresponds exactly to 
the English word '* not." It also possesses a few curious negative verbs, such 
as isam^ "not to be ; " uway *' not toicnow." In Japanese, on the contrary, the 
idea of negation is invariably expressed by conjugational forms. Each verb 
and adjective has a negative "voice," which goes through all the moods and 
tenses, just as Latin and Greek verbs have an inflected passive voice. 

15. — The system of counting in the two languages is radically dissimilar. 
In discussing this point, we must of course set aside the Chinese system now 
current in Japan, and which, owing to its superior simplicity, is beginning to 
make its way even into Aiiio-land. The original Japanese system of counting 
consisted of independent words as far as the number ten. After ten, they said 
ten plus one, ten plus two, ten plus three, twenty plus one, thirty plus one, and 
so on up to hundreds, thousands, and myriads. In fact, the old Japanese 
numeration was not very unlike our own. The complicated nature of the Aino 
method of counting will only be properly appreciated by those who will very 
carefully peruse Mr. Batchelor's chapter on the subject. The salient points in 
it are the invariable prefixing of the smaller number to the larger, the mixture 
of a denary and a vigesimal system, the existence of a unit corresponding to 
our "score," and the absence of any unit higher than the score. The idea of 
such units as "hundred" and "thousand" is foreign to the Aino mind. 
They can say "five score" (100), and "ten taken away from six score " (no). 
But much higher than that, they cannot easily ascend. To take a concrete 
instance, if a man wishes to say that he is thirty-seven years of age, he must 
express himself thus; — "I am seven years, plus ten years from two score 
years (!)." Not only is the method of combining different numerals totally un- 
like in the two languages. The manner in which the elementary numerals up 
to "ten" were originally formed, is also quite dissimilar. In Japanese, as in 
some other languages of the North-East of Asia, the even numerals seem to 
have been obtained by alteiing the vowel of the odd numerals of which they 
are the doubles ; thus : — 




" two." 


" three ;" 






" eight." 


" five ;" 



* Hito and futa probably stand for earlier piio and futa, where the correspondence is 
more apparent. 

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In Aino, on the other hand, the first four numerals shine (i), tu (2), re (3), ine 
(4), seem independent. Ashikne (5) is possibly '*new four" (ashiri ine) , The 
next four numerals are obtained by a process of subtraction from the higher 
number "ten.'* Compare: — 

ine^ "four," with iwan^ "six" (i.e. four from ten). 

re^ "three," with arawan, "seven" (i.e. three from ten). 
tUy "two," with tupesan^ "eight" (i.e. two from ten). 
shiney one," with shinepesany " nine" (i.e. one from ten). 
waUy "ten." 

There might be room for doubt as to the derivation of iwaUy " six," and arawany 
"seven," did they stand alone. Indeed, doubt is still permissible on their 
score. But tupesan is unquestionably "two (tu) things (pe) come down (san) 
[from ten]"; and shinepesan is as evidently "one thing come down [from 

Besides the above fifteen salient points of difference between the Japanese 
and Aino linguistic systems, there are of course minor discrepancies. Several 
of the latter were caused by the adoption, centuries ago, into Japanese of 
Chinese modes of expression. To these no importance should be attribuied-j 
for they are (so to speak) inorganic. 

It is just possible that scholars who are accustomed exclusively or chiefly 
to the study of the Aryan family of languages, whose looser structure allows of 
such wide divergences between the various members of the family, may fail to 
appreciate some of the differences between Japanese and Aino at their true 
value. But the Altaist, knowing the iron rule which forces all the Tartar 
tongues into the same grammatical mould, however widely their vocabularies 
may be separated, will hold the opinion of fundamental want of connection be- 
tween Japanese and Aino until very strong arguments shall have been brought 
forward on the other side. It may be sufficient here to quote a single fact, as 
showing that the Japanese characteristics touched on in the preceding pages 
are, not specific merely, but generic. It is that, on thirteen out of the fifteen 
points enumerated, there is absolute identity between Japanese and Korean, 
even down to so apparently trivial a linguistic habit as the dislike of initial r. 
Only in the treatment of negative expressions, and in that of the numerals, are 
there slight divergencies running through a general agreement. The gram- 
matical solidarity of Japanese with Mongol and Manchu is almost as great. 

There remain for explanation the points of similarity between Japanese 
and Aino adverted to at the beginning of this section. If the two languages 
are as fundamentally alien to each other as are the two races, — one smooth- 
faced and clever, the other sturdy, hairy, and stupid, — how are we to account 
for the adoption by both of the same construction of the sentence, and of nearly 
the same phonetic system ? One is loath to have recourse to the hypothesis of 
a fortuitous coincidence. Possibly, underlying the general divergencies, there 



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may be some vague similarity of mental disposition, which has caused both races 
to construe their sentences after the same pattern. Or else we may appeal to 
the intercourse of millenniums between the Ainos on the one hand and the 
Japanese or other Tartar races on the other, — a theory towards which Von 
Schrenck would seem to lean. If any borrowing of construction has taken 
place between Japanese and Aino, the Ainos must have been the borrowers. 
For they could hardly be supposed to have made their loans to the Koreans, 
Manchus, and Mongols as well as to their Japanese neighbours. 

Taking all the known facts into consideration, and pending that thorough 
investigation of the minor Asiatic languages which circumstances render so 
difficult, the present writer inclines to accept Von Schrenck's assertion that 
Aino is to be regarded as a language altogether isolated at the present day. 
When it is remembered that the Aino race is isolated from all other living races 
by its hairiness* and by the extraordinary flattening of the tibia and humerus, 
it is not strange to find the language isolated too. For though language does 
not always follow race, it generally docs so, indeed must do so unless excep- 
tional circumstances intervene to deflect the natural current of transmission 
from parent to child. The traces of inflection discovered in the verb and pro- 
noun perhaps point back to a time when Aino was a more copiously inflected 
tongue, just as the few stray fragments that are called English grammar tell of 
the shipwreck of a more elaborate system. Some light might thus be thrown 
on the similarity of Aino construction to that of Japanese. In inflected tongues 
the construction of the sentence is not an essential characteristic, as it is, for 
instance, in the Tartar languages. It is pliable. Hence, if the usual Aino con- 
struction was at all similar originally to that which is de rigueur in Japanese, 
Korean, and the other idioms of Tartar Asia, it would naturally have tended 
to crystallize more and more under the influence of secular intercourse with the 

The question has been asked, whether Aino may not be an Aryan tongue. 
The simplest answer at present is another question : Why should it ? What 
makes you think so ? The only reasons hitherto advanced are that the Ainos 
have long black beards, which make them look like Russian peasants ! For the 
slight grammatical similarities adverted to in the foregoing pages, such as the 
traces of declension in the firbt personal pronoun and of grammatical number in 
the verbs, had not even been suspected until perceived by Mr. Batchelor in the 
present year. There seems to be confusion of ideas on this subject. First of 
all, inflected languages are supposed to be necessarily Aryan, or at least 

* Tliis fact lias been questioned, but has been lately re-affirmed in the most positive 
manner by no less an aullioiily llian Dr. Baelz, in his essay eniiiled ** Die Korpei lichen Eigen- 
schaflen der Japaner/' published in the *' Millheilunjjen der Deutschen GeselUchaft fur 
Nalur und Volkerkunde Ostasiens," No. 28, Febiuary, 1883, p. 336. The subject of Aino 
haiiiness will be again adverl-cd lo in Section V. of the present ^!emoir, and an explanation of 
the difference of opinion among European observers proposed. For the flattening of the tibia 
^nd humerus, see Anutschin in the '* Rtissische Reiue,*^ 3rd year, 10th number, 

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presumably so. Secondly, bearded people are supposed to be necessarily 
Aryans. But in the case of the Ainos, the beards alone were brought into 
court. Mr. Batchclor's new facts will now put more solid arguments into the 
hands of the advocates of the Aryan origin of the Ainos. Should these argu- 
ments elicit further substantial facts, should (for instance) any similarity of 
vocabulary between Ainoand Aryan be fairly proved, the present writer will be 
the first to own himself a convert. For the present, he must content himself with 
* a scepticism which rests on negative grounds. There is nothing to show that 

inflection is a specially Aryan phenomenon. The Semitic tongues are there to 
prove that it is not. There is nothing to show that inflection is specially 
admirable. The haste with which the Aryan languages themselves are getting 

'^ rid of it is there to prove that inflections are cumbrous machinery. Again, 

how as to the ways and means of transporting the Ainos from their old Aryan 
home to the Japanese archipelago ? Is not some other hypothesis more likely 
than this one ? In fine, what reason was there for starting so wild a hypothesis 

^ at all ? Are not these ubiquitous Aryans the modern counterparts of those 

Lost Tribes of Israel, which an elder generation of scholars used to amuse 
itself by discovering in every quarter of the globe ? 


So far the two languages. We now come to that of which language is the 
vehicle, to the religion, the traditions, the fairy-tales of the two nations. Do 
the Ainos account for the origin of all things after the manner of their Japanese 
neighbours? Do Aino mothers and Japanese mothers lull their little ones to 
sleep with the same stories? And first of all, what are the sources of our 
knowledge of the ideas of both races on such subjects? Where is their 
mythology written down ? 

In the case of the Japanese the answer is plain enough. Their mythology 
is almost all to be found in the *^ Kojiki',^ or '* Records of Ancient Matters," 
a book of undoubted authenticity, dating from A.D. 712, and containing much 
older materials. Of this book a literal English translation has appeared as the 
Supplement to Vol. X. of the ** Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan." 
The ^^ KojikV^ is an extremely curious document, — intensely tedious, as are most 
Eastern religious and historical works (for it purports to unite both characters), 
and full of indecencies ; but, with its quaint poems, its elaborate honorifics, its 
incidental notices of divination, cave-dwelling, ancient modes of punishment, 
and a score of other customs, giving such a picture of early Japanese life and 
thought at a time before Chinese influence had been largely felt, as could not 
have been conveyed by any foreign WTiter, however skilful and well-informed. 
A study of the ^^ Kojiki^' should be supplemented by that of the ^^ Nihon-Gi^^^ 
or ** Chronicles of Japan," dating from A.D. 720, and of the collection of 

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archaic poetry entitled *' Man-yoshu^^^ which was put together about the middle 
of the eighth century. But the ^^ Kojiki^^ remains the authoritative docu- 
ment of Japanese antiquity. Of fairy-tales not found in the above standard 
works, more modern versions must be accepted for want of older ones. Some 
have been translated by Mr. Mitford in his '* Tales of Old Japan.'* Others are 
now appearing in an English dress in the ** Japanese Fairy-Tale Series/' 
published in Tokyo. One of Mr. Mitford's tales can be traced back in a slightly 
altered form to the early part of the Middle Ages.* 

With regard to the Ainos, the case is very different. That people has no 
books of any sort. It has never photographed its own mind. We must 
turn to the scant Japanese and European authorities, or, better still, inter- 
rogate the natives themselves. A little money soon opens their mouths. Only 
they must be allowed to tell their stories their own way, — repetitions, inde- 
cencies, intercalations, and all. It is a tedious process for the enquirer ; still 
more so for the corpus vile of the investigation, whose weak brain soon tires. 
The plan adopted by the present writer, whenever feasible, was to engage two 
Ainos, and generally to let one rest while the other talked, so that the greater 
part of the day could be made useful without over-fatiguing these grown-up 
children. Occasionally they would come in together, and assist each other's 
memories. But such personal details may be thought impertinent. We must 
return to our main subject. In order to facilitate comparison, some of the chief 
early Japanese and Aino myths are here printed in parallel columns, the Japa- 
nese to the left, the Aino to the right : — 


Japanese Account. Aino Account. 

The "/if^T/Vyt/" begins by enumerat- The Ainos, though they deify all 

ing the names of certain deities who the chief objects of nature, such as 

**were born" at the time when the sun, the sea, fire, wild beasts, 

heaven and earth began, — a time etc., often talk of a Creator, Kotan 

when the earth, " young and like kara Kamui, literally *' the God who 

unto floating oil, drifted about me- made the World." At the fact of 

-dusa-like." After detailing the creation they stop short. As to the 

spontaneous generation of a number manner, they have no details to give, 

of gods and goddesses, of whom the But one gathers that the creative act 

last-born were a pair named Izanagi was performed, not directly, but 

and Izanami, i.e. probably " the Male- through intermediaries, who were ap- 

Who-lnvites" and ''the Female- parently animals. Thus, in a story 

* The story of the " Tonj:ue-Cut Sparrow." A lileral translation of the story in its eai hest 
shape, under the title of "The Wounded Sparrows," will be found in the present writer's 
"Romanized Japanese Reader," Vol. II. p. 28 et seq. 

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Who-Invites/' the tradition continues 
thus : — *' Hereupon all the Heavenly 
Deities commanded Izanagi and Iza- 
nami, ordering them to make, con- 
solidate, and give birth to this drifting 
land. Granting to them an heavenly 
jewelled spear, they thus deigned to 
charge them. So the two Deities, 
standing upon the Floating Bridge of 
Heaven, pushed down the jewelled 
spear and stirred with it, whereupon, 
when they had stirred the brine till it 
went curdle-curdle, and drew the 
spear up, the brine that dripped down 
from the end of the spear was piled 
up, and became an island. This is 
the Island of Onogoro.^' — To this 
island they descend ; and there then 
follows an episode, which it is impos- 
sible to print in English, but which 
may be euphemistically described as 
the courtship of the god and god- 
dess. The result was an islet and 
a boy named Hirugo, who, being 
weakly, was placed in a boat of 
reeds, and allowed to float away. 
** Hereupon the two Deities took 
counsel, saying: 'The children to 
whom we have now given birth are not 
good. It will be best to announce this 
in the august place of the Heavenly 
Deities.* They ascended forthwith to 
Heaven, and enquired of their August- 
nesses the Heavenly Deities. Then 
the Heavenly Deities commanded and 
found out by grand divination, and 
ordered them, saying: 'They were 
not good, because the woman spoke 
first. Descend back again, and amend 
your words.' So thereupon descend- 
ing back, they again went round the 
heavenly august pillar, as before. 
Thereupon His Augustness Izanagi 

which is unfortunately too indelicate 
to quote, a certain defect in the struc- 
ture of the human body is attributed 
to the laziness of the otter, who for- 
got to convey God's message to the 
proper person. 

Failing details of the creation itself, 
there are numerous Aino stories 
concerning the period immediately 
succeeding the creation. The follow- 
ing is a literal translation of one told 
by Ishanashte, a fairly intelligent Aino 
of the village of Shumunkut, in the 
district of Saru : — 

How it was Settled who should Rule 
the World, 

When the Creator had finished 
creating this world of men, the good 
and the bad Gods were all mixed to- 
gether promiscuously, and began dis- 
puting for the possession of the world. 
They disputed, — the bad Gods wanting 
to be at the head of the government of 
this world, and the good Gods having 
a similar desire. So the following 
arrangement was agreed to : — Who- 
ever, at the time of sunrise, should be 
the first to see the luminary,* should 
rule the world. If the bad Gods should 
be the first to see it rise, then they 
should rule; and if the good Gods 
should be the first, then ihey should 
rule. Thereupon both the bad Gods 
and the brilliant Gods looked towards 
the place whence the sun was to rise. 
But the Fox-God alone stood looking 

♦ Lest the reader should imagine that 
*' luminary " is a piece of fine writing belong- 
ing, not to the original, but to the transla- 
tion, it may be mentioned that the Ainos do 
not generally distinguish the sun from the 
moon. Both are called chup^ of which word 
" luminary '* is the nearest rendering. Some- 
times the moon is distinguished as kunne 
chiip, i.e. '' the black luminary." 

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spoke first : ' Ah ! what a fair and 
lovely maiden/ Afterwards his youn- 
ger sister [and wife] Her Augustness 
Izanami spoke : ' Ah ! what a fair and 
lovely youth !' When they had made 

an end of thus speaking, they 

gave birth to a child, which is the 
Island of Awaji. Next they gave birth 
to the Island of Futana in lyo ;*' and 
so on, till the whole Japanese archi- 
pelago had been produced by a natural 
process of procreation, and likewise 
gods and goddesses to the number 
of thirty-five. Among the latter was 
the God of Fire, whose birth caused 
his mother's death. The most strik- 
ing episode of the whole Japanese 
mythology then ensues, when Izanagi, 
Orpheus-like, visits his dead wife in 
the under-world, and implores her to 
return to him. She would fain do so, 
and therefore bids him wait while she 
consults with the deities of the place. 
But he, impatient at her long tarrying, 
breaks off one of the end-teeth of the 
comb stuck in the left bunch of his 
hair, lights it, and goes in, only to find 
her a hideous mass of corruption, in 
whose midst are seated the eight Gods 
of Thunder. Izanagi forthwith returns 
horror-stricken to the world above, 
and purifies himself by bathing in a 
stream. As he does so, various deities 
are born from the articles of his 
apparel, and the Sun-Goddess and 
Moon-God from his eyes. 


The Japanese cosmogony nowhere 
mentions the creation of man, although 
the birth of the Japanese archipelago 
and of the gods is narrated with so 

towards the West. After a little time, 
the Fox cried out : '* I see the sunrise.'' 
On the Gods, both bad and good, turn- 
ing round and gazing, they saw in 
truth the refulgence of the sun in the 
West. This is the cause for which the 
brilliant Gods rule the world. 

The imperfect sequence of ideas in 
the above story does not seem to be 
felt by the Ainos themselves. That 
the cunning Fox-God should be able 
to see the sunrise in the West 
before it is to be seen in the East, 
refers to the natural phenomenon of 
the western mountain-tops being tip- 
ped with light before the actual ap- 
pearance of the solar disk. 

The following was obtained from 
Penri, the old chieftain of Piratori : — 
W/ijf the Cock cannot hly. 

When the Creator had finished 
making the world, and had returned 
to heaven, he sent down the cock to 
see whether the world was good or 
not, with the injunction to come back 
at once. But the world was so fair, 
that the cock, unable to tear himself 
away, kept lingering on from day to 
day. At last^ after a long time, he 
was on his way flying back up to 
heaven. But God, angry with him for 
his disobedience, stretched forth his 
hand, and beat him down to earth, 
saying *' You are not wanted in heaven 
any more." That is why, to this very 
day, the cock is incapable of any 
high flight. 


The Ainos are not unanimous on 

the question of their origin. But the 

story most of them tell, — and have 

told' ever since the Japanese first be- 

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much detail. Human beings appear 
unannounced on the stage, and ap- 
parently differ from the gods in no 
respect. The gods are anthropo- 
morphous; the human beings are 
capable of supernatural actions. The 
origin of the Imperial Family alone is 
made the subject of an elaborate, but 
inconsistent legend. The Sun-God- 
dess suddenly resolves that the va- 
rious deities, who had hitherto ruled 
the world (i.e. Japan), shall be ousted 
in favour of a child born of the jewels 
of her own head-dress. Three em- 
bassies are despatched from heaven 
to earth to arrange matters ; and at 
last the descendant of the Sun ap- 
pears, — not, as the general tenour of 
the story would require, on the coast 
of Izumo, by the Sea of Japan, but in 
Kyushu, the South-Western corner of 
the Empire. For a couple of genera- 
tions the Imperial Family remains in 
Kyushu, after which two of its mem- 
bers sail eastwards up the Inland Sea, 
assisted by a miraculous sword and a 
gigantic eight-headed crow, and con- 
quer Central Japan from the rebellious 
men and the rebellious gods inhabit- 
ing the country. One of these two 
(evidently mythical) heroes is consi- 
dered by the Japanese annalists to 
have been the first human sovereign 
of Japan. He is the personage gene- 
rally known to ** history " under the 
title of Jimmu Tenno. 

gan making enquiries on the subject 
some two centuries ago, — is that a 
long, long time ago a large box from 
Yedo"^ floated on to the shore of the 
district of Saru in Yezo. When it 
reached the strand, it opened and let 
out a beautiful Japanese girl. At- 
tracted by her exceeding fairness, a 
large white dog (others say a wolf) 
came down to the strand. Some say 
that he temporarily assumed human 
shape. In any case he made love to 
the maiden, and conducted her to a 
cavern where he fed her with fruits. A 
child was born to the pair. But the 
mother discovered, to her horror, that 
it had a tail. Those who assert that 
the dog had put on human shape, here 
add that he then informed the woman 
of his true nature. They held a 
consultation together, the result of 
which was that the infant's tail was 
cut off, the process causing no pain. 
From this infant the Aino race is 
descended ; and, it is added, we have 
thus the reason for the Ainos being 
hairy like dogs, and yet tail-less. 

The rationale of this myth is clear- 
ly to be found in the extreme hairi- 
ness of the Ainos, and in the fact that 
the word " Aino " or ^^ Ainu " closely 
resembles in sound the Japanese 
words inUy " dog," and ainoko, '* half- 

* Yedo was not founded till early in the 
sevenleenlh century. Legend plays strange 
pranks with dales. 


Japanese Account. Aino Account. 

Various- arts are mentioned in the The Ainos say that the name of 
legends of the earliest ages, for in- their civilizer was Okikurumi, who 

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stance weaving, house-building, mow- 
ing, the forging of metal swords. The 
fire-drill is also alluded to; and there 
are indications of a yet earlier time 
when stone implements had not yet 
been superseded by iron (not bronze). 
But, though the horizon of Japanese 
mythology is almost completely limit- 
ed by Japan, there is no legend of a 
native civilizer. Rather are the ele- 
ments of culture everywhere taken 
for granted, as if they had always ex- 
isted among the people. The in- 
troduction of a more advanced type 
of civilization than that to which the 
Japanese had risen unaided, is rightly 
attributed to Chinese influence act- 
ing by way of Korea; and it is with 
the exercise of this influence, (hat 
Japanese history properly so-called 
dawns, in the fourth century of the 
Christian era. First we are told,, 
with many mythological details, of 
a Japanese conquest of Korea about 
the year 200. Then we learn that 
the chieftain of one of the principali- 
ties, into which Korea was at that 
time divided, *' sent as tribute a man 
named Wani-kishi, and likewise by 
this man he sent as tribute the Con- 
fucian Analects in ten volumes and 
the Thousand Character Essay in one 
volume, — altogether eleven volumes." 
The Korean chieftain is represented 
as following up this present of a 
learned man by presents of artisans, 
from whom the Japanese were to ob- 
tain instruction in the arts of the 
smith, the weaver, and the brewer. 
There can be no doubt that the story 
told of this introduction of civilization 
from Korea is true in the main. At 
the same time, it is not hard to pick 

came down from heaven with his 
younger sister (and wife) Turesh 
Machi, and his son Wariunekuru. 
The following curious story was told 
to the present writer by a young 
Aino named Kuteashguru, to account 
for the disappearance of these divine 
beings : — 

When the world had only recently 
been made, all was still unsettled and 
dangerous ; for the crust of the earth 
was thin. It was burning beneath, 
and unstable, so that the people did 
not dare venture outside of their huts 
even to obtain food ; for they would 
have scorched their feet. Their 
necessities were relieved by the God 
Okikurumi, who used to fish for them, 
and then send his wife Turesh round 
with what he caught. She every day 
popped in at each window the family 
meal for the day. But the condition 
of this divine succour was that no 
questions were to be asked, and that 
none should attempt to see Turesh's 
face. Well, one day, a certain Aino 
in one of the huts, not content with 
being fed for nothing, must needs dis- 
obey Okikurumi's commands. Curious 
to see who was the lovely ministering 
maiden, he watched for the moment 
when her hand with food in it ap- 
peared at the window, seized hold of 
it, and forcibly pulled her in, disre- 
garding her screams. No sooner was 
she inside the hut, than she turned 
into a wriggling, writhing sea-monster. 
The sky darkened, crashes of thunder 
were heard, the monster vanished, and 
the hut was consumed by lightning. 
In punishment of that one man's curi- 
osity, Okikurumi withdrew his favour 
from the whole race, and vanished. 

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holes in the details. Thus the state- 
ment concerning the bringing to Japan 
of the " Thousand Character Essay " is 
a glaring anachronism. We are re- 
minded at every step of the extreme 
caution necessary in dealing with our 

(The ideas of transformation into 
sea-monsters, and of the punishment 
of curiosity by the withdrawal of the 
person peeped at, which come out 
incidentally in the Aino story of the 
origin of civilization, being also fami- 
liar to the myth-maker of Japan, a 
specimen from the ^^Kojiki'^ is here 
apponded : — 

'* When the Sea-God's daughter was 
about to be delivered, she spoke to 
her husband, saying: 'Whenever a 
foreigner is about to be delivered, 
she assumes the shape proper to her 
in her native land. So I now will 
take my native shape to be delivered. 
Pray look not upon me ! ' Hereupon 
her husband, thinking these words 
strange, stealthily peeped at the very 
moment of delivery, when she turned 
into a crocodile [the ^' Nihon-Gi" 
says a dragon] eight fathoms long, 
and crawled and writhed about ; and 
he forthwith, terrified at the sight, 
fled away. Then the Sea-God's 
daughter knew that he had peeped ; 
and she felt ashamed ; and straight- 
way, leaving the august child which 
she had borne, she said: T had wished 
always to come and go across the sea- 
path. But thy having peeped at my 
real shape, makes me very shame- 
faced,' — and she forthwith closed the 
sea-boundary, and went down again 
[to the Sea-God's palace] "). 

Ever since then the Ainos have been 

poor and miserable. 

According to another tradition, 
which seems to be among those most 
widely spread, the Japanese hero Yo- 
shitsune* arrived on the scene some 
time after Okikurumi had begun 
teaching the Aino men how to fish 
and hunt, and Turesh had begun 
teaching the Aino women how to sew. 
Being of a wily disposition, he ingra- 
tiated himself so well with the divine 
pair, that they bestowed on him their 
only daughter in marriage. The 
wedding took place at Piratori in the 
district of Saru. Yoshitsune was thus 
enabled to penetrate the secrets of 
the Ainos. By a fraud, to which his 
wife was an unwilling partner, he ob- 
tained possession of their treasures 
and of their books, and fled, carrying 
all with him. Okikurumi and Turesh, 
incensed at this insult, disappeared 
through a cavern at the summit of 
Mount Hayopira near Piratori. Since 
that time, the Ainos have lost the arts 
of writing and of pottery, and have 
taken to buying their clothes, etc., 
from the Japanese.— yWhen interro- 
gated on any point of which they are 
at a loss for an answer, the almost 
invariable Aino reply is: ** We do 
not know; for we have no books. 
Those that our ancestors had, were all 
stolen by Yoshitsune." 

* A genuinel}' Insloiical personage of the 
121I1 cenlury of oui era. 

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Japanese Account. 
The country was everywhere thick- 
ly populated before the arrival of 
the heaven-descended conquerors, to 
whom the present Imperial House 
traces its pedigree. But the tradi- 
tions on the subject are vague and 
inconsistent. Some of the aborigines 
would seem to have been looked 
on as descendants of various gods. 
Others are represented as cave-dwell- 
ers and robbers. All were hostile 
to the conquerors. Some are spoken 
of as men, others as gods. Some had 
tails. One is spoken of as riding on 
the carapace of a tortoise, and waving 
his wings. Some (and this is import- 
ant) bore names, which are meaning- 
less in Japanese, but which, even at 
this distance of time, are clearly 
traceable to Aino originals, though the 
Japanese have never thought of look- 
ing in that direction for their explana- 
tion. Thus Tomibikothe native chief 
who, in the Jimmu Tenno legend, is 
represented as slaying that Monarch's 
brother, is simply ** the prince (Jap. 
hiko) of war" (Aino tiimi). The 
Ukashi brethren at Uda, who attempt 
to slay Jimmu Tenno himself by 
catching him in a pitfall, are as evi- 
dently t4ie '* elders" (Aino ekashi) of 
the village in question, which itself 
moreover has an Aino name, as will 
be shown further on. 

Aino Account. 

Before the time of the Ainos, Yezo 
was inhabited by a race of dwarfs, 
said by some to have been two or 
three feet in height, by others one 
inch. When a shower came on, or an 
enemy approached, they used to hide 
under the large leaves of the burdock 
{koro)y whence they are called Koro- 
pok-guru, i.e. ** the people under the 
burdock-leaves." When about to be 
exterminated by the wooden clubs of 
the conquering Ainos, they raised their 
eyes to heaven, and cried with tears 
to the Gods, saying: "Why did you 
make us so tiny?" — Some of the 
Ainos also talk of a race called Kim- 
tin-aimi, i.e. *' Men of the Moun- 
tains," a few of whom are said to 
have still wandered in the forests of 
Teshio within the memory of living 
persons. They are said to have been 
stronger and much hairier than the 
ordinary Ainos, and to have been 

As to their own former presence on 
the Main Island of Japan, there is 
divergence of opinion. Some Ainos 
assert that their kinsmen once lived 
there, and were driven across the 
Strait of Tsugaru by the conquering 
Japanese. Others emphatically deny 
this humiliating fact (for it is a histo- 
rical fact), and look to the present 
Aino capital Piratori as the cradle of 
their race. Not unnaturally, this is 
the view which the Piratori people 
themselves favour. 

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The early Japanese and the Ainos agree in Iiolding very vague ideas on the 
subject of a future life. The Japanese name for Hades is Vomi or Vomo^ gene- 
rally interpreted to signify " the Land of Gloom." It is the place whither all 
men go when they die, whether noble or mean, virtuous or wicked. So say the 
commentators. The Aino name is Pokna Moshiri^ i.e. " the World Beneath." 
Some of the Ainos say that Paradise is below the earth, and Hell below that 
again. But as they use the modern Japanese Buddhist names for those places, 
they would appear to be, consciously or unconsciously, giving a foreign tinge 
to their old traditions. The fact that inany Aino fairy-tales mention Hades 
under the name of Pokna Moshiriy while none sceniingly mention Heaven or 
Hell, favours the view that no moral thread was woven into the idea of the next 
world as originally conceived by the Aino mind. 


The Japanese mythology pivots, so 
to speak, on the sun. The chief of 
all the goddesses has her abode in 
the sun ; and to her a whole cycle of 
myths, in which the moon-god takes 
a much lower place, refers. The pre- 
sent Imperial Family traces its de- 
scent to this mighty goddess, who 
left the world helpless when once, in 
her anger, she retired into a cave. — 
The early mythology makes no ex- 
plicit allusion to eclipses, or supersti- 
tions connected therewith, nor to 
comets or rainbows. — The Japanese 
mystic number is eight. 

The sun and moon, though wor- 
shipped as are all the more striking 
objects of nature, have suggested no 
myths to the Aino mind. The fur- 
thest imaginative flight taken by the 
Ainos is to say that the sun has the 
morning-star for an attendant, the 
moon the evening-star. Some Ainos 
think that the sun is male and the moon 
female, but others state the contrary. 
— Eclipses, comets, and all unusual 
appearances in the heavens are feared. 
Rainbows are supposed to pursue 
people, and make them mad. — The 
Aino mystic number is six. 


The idea, familiar to Europeans from such stories as those of Peter Klaus 
and Rip Van Winkle, seems to have such a natural attraction for the human 
mind, as to re-appear in almost every land. We meet with it in Japanese books 
of the eighth and thirteenth centuries (the Man-yoshu and Shaku Nihon-Gi)^ 
and also among the Ainos. The following is the 

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Japanese Version.* 

T/ie Fisher-Boy Urashinia, 

*Tis spring, and the mists come steal- 

O'er Suminoye's shore ; 
And I stand by the seaside musing 

On the days that are no more. 

I muse on the old-world story, 
As the boats glide to and fro, 

Of the fisher-boy Urashima, 
Who a-fishing loved to go ; 

How he came not back to the village, 
Though seven suns had risen and 
set ; 

But rowed on past the bounds of ocean. 
And the Sea-God's daughter met; 

How they pledged their faith to each 

And came to the Evergreen Land, 
And entered the Sea-God's palace 

So lovingly hand in hand ; 

To dwell for aye in that country, 
The ocean-maiden and he, — 

The country where youth and beauty 
Abide eternally. 

But the foolish boy said " To-morrow 
ril come back with thee to dwell ; 

But I have a word to my father, 
A word to my mother to tell." 

The maiden answered, ** A casket 

I give into thine hand ; 
And if that thou hopest truly 

To come back to the Evergreen 

'* Then open it not, I charge thee. 
Open it not, I beseech ! " — 

* The " Man-ydshu*' ballad on ibe subject 
has been chosen as containing ihe story in 
its earliest known Japanese form. The me- 
trical translation, which has already appeared 
in a booU on "The Classical Poetry of the 
Japanese " by the present nuihor, is as literal 
;is the demands of a very loose metre will 
permit. The original Japanese ballad has a 
charming grace and pathos. 

AiNo Version. 

(Translated literally from the words 

dictated by Ishanashte.) 

A certain Air.o went out in a boat 
to catch fish in the sea. While he 
was there, a great wind arose, so that 
he drifted about for six nights. Just 
as he was like to die, land came in 
sight. Being borne on to thebeach 
by the waves, he quietly stepped 
ashore, where he found a pleasant 
rivulet. Having walked up the bank 
of this rivulet for some distance, he 
descried a populous town, in whose 
neighbourhood were crowds of people, 
both men and women. Proceeding to 
the town itself, and entering the 
house of the chief, he found an old 
man of divine aspect, who said to 
him : *' Stay with us a night, and we 
will send you home to your own coun- 
try to-morrow. Do you consent? "— 
So the Aino spent the night with the 
old chief, who next morning address- 
ed him as follows : *' Some of my 
people, both men and women, are 
going to your country for purposes of 
trade. So, if you will put yourself 
under their guidance, you will be able 
to go home. When they take you 
with them in the boat, you must lie 
down, and not look about you, but 
completely hide your head. That 
is the condition of your return. If 
you look, my people will be angry. 
. Mind you do not look." Thus spoke 
the old chief. — Well, there was a 
whole fleet of boats, inside which 
crowds of people, both men and 
women, took passage, There were as 
many as five score boats, which all 
started off together. The Aino lay 

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So the boy rowed home o'er the billows 
To Suminoye's beach. 

But where is his native hamlet? 

Strange hamlets line the strand. 
Where is his mother's cottage? 

Strange cots rise on either hand. 

" What, in three short years since I 
left it," 
He cries in his wonder sore, 
'* Has the home of my childhood 
vanished ? 
Is the bamboo fence no more ?" 

*^ Perchance if I open the casket 
Which the maiden gave to me. 

My home and the dear old village 
Will come back as they used to be." 

An4 he lifts the lid, and there rises 

A fleecy, silvery cloud. 
That floats off to the Evergreen Coun- 
try : — 

And the fisher-boy cries aloud. 

He waves the sleeve of his tunic, 
He rolls over on the ground. 

He dances with fury and horror. 
Running wildly round and round. 

But a sudden chill comes o'er him. 
That bleaches his raven hair, 

And furrows with hoary wrinkles 
The form erst so young and fair. 

His breath grows fainter and fainter, 
Till at at last he sinks dead on the 
the shore ; 
And I gaze on the spot where his 
Once stood, but now stands no 

Two later stages of the devolop- 
ment of this legend can be traced by 
documentary evidence. As told in 
the ^' Shaku Nikon Gi," it has lost all 
its poetry, and become drily and 
chronologically prosaic. The Japa- 
nese annalist writes as follows : — 

down inside one of them; and hid 
his head, while the others made the 
boats go to the music of a pretty 
song, which he much enjoyed. After 
awhile, they reached the land. When 
they had done so, the Aino, peeping 
a little, saw that there was a river, and 
that they were drawing water with dip- 
pers from the mouth of the river, and 
sipping it. They said to each other 
" How good this water is ! '' Half the 
fleet went up the river. But the boat, 
in which the Aino was, continued its 
voyage, and at last arrived at the shore 
of his native place, whereupon the 
sailors threw the Aino into the water. 
He thought he had been dreaming; 
and then he came to himself. The 
boat and its sailors had disappeared, 
— whither he could not tcH. But he 
went to his house, and, falling asleep, 
dreamt a dream. He dreamt that the 
same old chief appeared to him and 
said : " I am no human being. I am 
the Chief of the Salmon, the Divine 
Fish. As you seemed in danger of 
perishing in the waves, I drew you to 
me and saved your life. You thought 
you only staid with me a single night. 
But in reality that night was a whole 
year, at the conclusion of which I 
sent you back to your native place. 
So I shall be truly grateful if hence- 
forth you will offer liquor* to me, set 
up the divine symbols in my honour, 
and worship me with the words * I 
make a libation to the Chief of the Sal- 
mon, the Divine Fish.' If you do not 
worship me, you will become a poor 
man. Remember this well 1 " Such 

*The original word is sahe^ a sort of rice- 
beer made by the Japanese, and of which 
the Ainos are inordinately fond. 

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'* In the 2ist year of the reign were the words which the divine old 
of the Emperor Yuryaku, one Ura- man spoke to him in his dream, 
shima, a descendant of the God 
Shimanemi and an inliabitant of 
Mizunoe in the district of Yosa in the 
province of Tamba, went to Elysium 
in a fishing-boat. Afterwards, in the 
2nd year of the period Tencho, in the 
reign of the Emperor Junna, he re- 
turned, and afterwards he went whi- 
ther no one knew. (The time between 
those two dates is 348 years).*' 

In modern times all sorts of em- 
bellishments are added to the plain 
but touching tale told in the Man- 
yoshu ballad. The Sea-God's daugh- 
ter assumes the shape of a turtle to 
lure Urashima to her magic island 
covered with dazzling palaces. The 
stars wait upon the couple while they 
feast at splendid banquets, beauti- 
ful singing and dancing girls help 
to divert them, the whole race that 
lives there are immortal Rishisy etc., 
etcj, etc. The influence of China 
and of Buddhism becomes very plain 


A story, whose Aino version is clearly an echo of the Japanese, and the 
Japanese of the Chinese, is that of the ''Land of Women" or *'Isle of Women." 
The main feature of it is that these women are murderesses or even canibals, 
who first make love to such stray men as may be stranded on their shore, and 
then destroy them after dallying with them for a season. Or else the story 
goes that they become pregnant after emerging from the bath, by standing 
opposite the South (the Ainos say the East) wind. This is a very ancient 
Chinese fable. The popular Japanese mind localizes it in the Southern Island of 
Hachijo, where, — so it is said, — the women sometimes put sandals on the 
beach, the heels turned seawards. Should any fisherman land and put on a pair 
of these sandals, he becomes, for the time being, the husband of her to whom 
they belong. It is difficult to escape with life from the lascivious importunities 

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of these Amazons. The Aino version has its peculiarities, which are curious 
enough, but unfortunately far too indelicate for reproduction in print. 

A favourite subject with the people of most lands is a visit to the World of 
the Dead. The desire to lift that never-lifted curtain rises ever and again in 
the human breast. We have already alluded on page 14 to the most striking 
and picturesque eaily Japanese legend on the subject. There is another 
curious one in the ''Kojiki ;'' but as it is of somewhat uncertain interpretation, 
it will not here be quoted. The other Japanese stories of a kindred nature are 
more modern, being derived from Buddhism, and therefore foreign to our pre- 
sent enquiry. Here is the Aino version of the same idea, given in two distinct 
legends : — 


A handsome and brave young Aino, skilful in the chase, one day pursued a 
large bear into the recesses of the mountains. On and on ran the bear, and 
still the young fellow pursued it up heights and crags more and more dangerous, 
but without ever being able to get near enough to shoot it with his poisoned 
arrow. At last on a bleak mountain-summit, the bear disappeared down a hole 
in the ground. The young Aino followed in, and found himself in an immense 
cavern, at the far extremity of which was a gleam of light. Towards this he 
groped his way, and, on emerging, found himself in another world. AH 
was as in the world of men, but more beautiful. There were trees, houses, 
villages, human beings. With these, however, the young hunter had no con- 
cern. What he wanted was his bear, which had totally disappeared. The best 
plan seemed to be to seek it in the remoter mountain district of this new world 
underground. So he followed up a valley, and, being tired and hungry, picked 
the grapes and mulberries that were hanging to the trees, and ate them while 
walking leisurely along. 

Suddenly, happening to look down on his own body for some reason or 
other, what was not his horror to find himself transformed into a serpent ! His 
very tears and cries, on the discovery of the metamorphosis, were changed into 
snake's hisses. What was he to do ? To go back like this to his native world, 
where snakes are hated, would be certain death. No plan presented itself to 
his mind. But unconsciously he wandered, or rather crept and glided, back to 
the mouth of the cavern that led home to the world of men ; and there, at the 
foot of a pine-tree of extraordinary size and height, he fell asleep. To him 
then, in a dream, there appeared the Goddess of the pine-tree, and said : *' I 
am sorry to see vou in this state. Why did you eat the poisonous fruits of 
Hades ? The only thing for you to do, if you wish to recover your original 
shape, is to climb to the top of this pine-tree, and fling yourself down. Then 
you may perhaps become a human being again." 

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On awaking from this dream, the young man, — or rather snake, as he 
found himself still to be, — was filled half with hope, half with fear. But he 
decided to try the Goddess's remedy. So, gliding up the tall pine-tree, he 
reached its very top-most branch, and, after a little hesitation, flung himself 
down. Crash he went. When he came to his senses, he found himself stand- 
ing at the foot of the tree ; and close by was the body of an immense serpent, 
all ripped open, so as to allow of his having crawled out of it. After offering 
up thanks to the pine-tree, and setting up the divine symbols in its honour, he 
hastened to retrace his steps through the long tunnel-like cavern, through which 
he had originally come into Hades. After walking for a certain time, he 
emerged into the world of men, to find himself on the mountain-top whither he 
had pursued the bear which he had never seen again. On reaching home, he 
dreamt a second time. It was the same Goddess of the pine-tree who 
appeared before him and said : *' I come to tell you that you cannot stay long 
in the world of men, after once eating the grapes and mulberries of Hades. 
There is a Goddess in Hades who wishes to marry you. She it was who, 
assuming the form of a bear, lured you into the cavern and thence to the under- 
world. You must make up your mind to come away." 

And so it fell out. The young man awoke. But a grave sickness over- 
powered him. A few days later he went a second time to the underworld, and 
returned no more to the world of the living. 


Three generations before my time, there lived an Aino who wanted to find 
out whether the stories as to the existence of an underworld were true. So 
one day he penetrated into an immense cavern (since washed away by the 
waves) at the river-mouth of Sarubutsu. All was dark in front ; all was dark 
behind. But at last the man saw a glimmer of light ahead. On he went, 
and soon emerged into the underworld. There were trees, and villages, and 
rivers, and the sea, and large junks loading fish and sea-weed. Some of the 
folks were Ainos, some were Japanese, just as in the every -day world. Among 
the number were some whom he had known when they were alive. But though 
he saw them, they did not seem to see him. Indeed he was invisible to all, 
excepting to the dogs. For dogs see everything, even spirits; and they barked 
at him fiercely. Hereupon the people of the place, judging that some evil 
spirit had come among them, threw unclean food to him, such as evil spirits eat, 
in order to appease him, as they thought. Of course he was disgusted, and 
flung the filthy fish-bones and soiled rice away. But every time that he did so, 
the stuff immediately returned to the pocket in his bosom, so that he was 
greatly distressed. 

At last, entering a fine-looking house near the beach, he saw his father- 

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and molher, — not old as they were when they died, but in the heyday of youth 
and strength. He called to his mother, but she ran away trembling. He 
clasped his father's hand, and said: ** Father ! don't you know me? lam 
your son." But his father fell yelling to the ground. So he stood aloof again, 
and watched how his parents and the other people in the house set up the 
divine symbols, and prayed to make the evil spirit go away. In his despair 
at being unrecognized, he did go away, with the unclean food that had been 
thrown to him still sticking to his person, notwithstanding his endeavours to 
get rid of it. It was only when, after passing back through the cavern, he 
had emerged into the world of men, that it left him free from its pollution. He 
returned home, and never again desired to visit the under-world. It is a foul 
place. — The most interesting feature of the latter of these fables is the Aino 
view of evil spirits or ghouls, which it brings before us. 

Of beast-stories the two nations have an unequal share, — the early Japanese 
very few, the Ainos many. The following are specimens. Both the Japanese 
stories quoted are very old, being taken from the *' Kojiki ": — 


The White Hare of In aba. 
The God Okuninushi had eighty 
elder brethren ; but they were all de- 
posed in his favour. The reason for 
this was as follows : Each of these 
eighty Deities had in his heart the 
wish to marry the Princess of Yakami 
in Inaba ; and they went together to 
Inaba, putting their bag on the back 
of the God Okuninushi, whom they 
took with them as an attendant. 
Hereupon, when they arrived at Cape 
Keta, they found a naked Hare lying 
down. Then the eighty Deities spoke 

to the Hare, saying : " What thou 
shouldest do is to bathe in the sea- 
water here, and lie on the slope of a 
high mountain exposed to the blowing 
of the wind." So the Hare followed 
the instructions of the eighty Deities, 
and lay dov»n. Then as the sea-water 
dried, the skin of its body all split 
wifli the blowing of the wind, so that it 


The Fox, the Otter, and the Monkey. 

In very ancient days, at the begin- 
ning of the world, there were a Fox, 
an Otter, and a Monkey, — all three 
of whom lived on the most intimate 
terms of friendship. One day the 
Fox addressed the other two as fol- 
lows : '• What do you say to going 
off somewhere, stealing from the 
Japanese, and thus getting food and 
money ? " His two companions hav- 
ing consented, they all went together 
to a distant place, and stole a bag of 
beans, a bag of salt, and a mat from 

the house of a very rich man. When 
they had all three come home with 

their plunder, the Fox said : '* Otter 1 

you had better take the salt ; for it 

will be useful to you in salting the 

fish, which you catch in the water 

when you go fishing. Monkey 1 do 

you take the mat ! It will be very 

useful for you to make your children 

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lay weeping with pain. But the God 
Okuninuslii, who came last of all, 
saw the Hare, and said : "Why licst 
thou weeping?" The Hare replied, 
saying: " I was in the Island of Oki, 
and wished to cross over to this coun- 
try, but had no means of crossing 
over. For this reason I deceived the 
Crocodiles of the sea, saying : ' Let 
you and me compete, and compute 
the numbers of our respective tribes. 
So do you go and fetch every mem- 
ber of your tribe, and make them all 
lie in a row across from this island to 
Cape Keta. Then I will tread on 
them, and count them as I run across. 
Hereby shall we know whether it or 
my tribe is the larger.' Upon my 
speaking thus, they were deceived, 
and lay down in a row ; and I trod on 
them, and counted them as I came 
across, and was just about to get on 
land, when I said : ' You have been 
deceived by me.' As soon as I had 
finished speaking, the Crocodile ^^ho 
lay the last of all, seized me and strip- 
ped off all my clothing. As I was 
weeping and lamenting for this rea- 
son, the eighty Deities who went by 
before thee, commanded and exhorted 
me, saying : ' Bathe in the salt water, 
and lie down exposed to the wind ! ' 
So, on my doing as ihcy had in- 
structed me, my whole body was 
hurt." Thereupon the God Okuni- 
nuslii instructed the Hare, saying : 
" Go quickly now to the liver-moulh, 
wash thy body with the fresh water, 
then take the pollen of the sedges 
growing at the river-mouth, spread it 
about, and roll about upon it, where- 
upon thy body will certainly be re- 
stored to its original state.'* So the 

dance upon. As for myself, I will 
take the bag of beans." 

After this, all three retired to their 
respective houses ; and a little later, 
the Otter went to the river to fish. 
But as he took his bag of salt with 
him when he made the plunge, all the 
salt was melted in a moment, to the 
Otter's great disgust. The Monkey 
was equally unlucky. For, having 
taken his mat, and spread it on the 
top of a tree, and made his children 
dance there, the children fell down, 
and were dashed to pieces on the 
ground below. 

The Monkey and the Otter, en- 
raged by the misfortunes to which 
the Fox's wiles had exposed them, 
now joined together in order to fight 
him. So he took a lot of beans 
out of his bag, chewed them to a 
pulp, smeared all his body with the 
paste, and lay down pretending to 
be very sick. And when the Otter 
and the Monkey came, and made to 
kill him, he said : " See to what a 
piti.ful plight I am reduced ! As a 
punisliment for having deceived you, 
my whole body is now covered with 
boils, and I am on the point of death. 
There is no need for you to kill me. 
Go away ! I am dying fast enough." 
The Monkey looked, and saw that 
the Fox seemed to be speaking the 
truth. So he went testily away 
across the sea to Japan. That is the 
reason why there are no Monkeys in 
the country of the Ainos.* 

*'riie Si rail of Tsnparii form*; llie norihoni 
limit of llie rnnge cf ilic nioiikpy in ihe Jnpn- 
ncse arcliipclngo, and indeed in llie world. 

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Hare did as it was instructed, and its 
body became as it had been origi- 
nally. This was the White Hare of 
Inaba. It is now called the Hare 
Deity. So the Hare said to the God 
Okuninushi : '* These eiglity Deities 
sliall certainly not get the Princess of 
Yakami. Though thou bearest the bag, 
Thine Augustncss shall obtain her.^' 

The only other legend contained in 
the '' Kojlki'' or '' Nihon-Gi;' that 
represents animals as speaking, is the 
following, which, like the tale just 
quoted, forms part of the cycle of the 
exploits of Okuninushi, the deity of 
the province of Izumo. It is hard to 
find a name for it. The text, literally 
translated, is as follows : — 

So on Okuninushi's arriving at Su- 
sanoo's palace, the lattcr's daughter. 
Princess Suseri, came out and saw 
him, and they exchanged glances, 
and were married. And she went in 
again, and told her father, saying: 
*^ A very beautiful God has come." 
Then her father went out and looked, 
and said : '* This is the God Okuni- 
nushi ; ** and at once, calling him in, 
made him sleep in the snake-house. 
Hereupon Princess Suseri gave her 
husband a scarf by whose means he 
might drive away the snakes, saying: 
** When the snakes are about to bite 
thee, drive them away by waving this 
scarf thrice." So, on his doing as she 
told him, the snakes became quiet, so 
that he came forth after calm slum- 
bers. Again on the night of the next 
day, his father-in-law put him into 
the centipede and wasp house. But, 
as she again gave Inm a scarf by 
whose means he might drive away 

Panaumbr, Penaumbe, and the Weepping 

(Literal translation of a story told by 

There were Panaumbc and Pena- 
umbe. Panaumbe went down to the 
bank of a river, and called out : ** Oh ! 
you fellows on the cliff behind yon- 
der cliff! Ferry me across! " They 
replied: "We must Prst scoop out 
a canoe. Wait for us!" After a 
liltle while, Panaumbe called out 
again. — "We have no poles;" said 
they ; "we are going to make some 
poles. Wait for us ! " After a little 
longer, he called out a third time. 
They replied thus : " We are coming 
for you. Wait for us ! " Then the 
boat started, — a big boat all full of 
foxes. So Panaumbe, having first 
seized hold of a good bludgeon, feign- 
ed dead. Then the foxes arrived, 
and spoke thus : " Panaumbe ! you 
are to be pitied. Were you frozen 
to death ? or were you starved to 
death?" With these words all the 
foxes came up close to him, and 
wept. Thereupon Panaumbe bran- 
dished his bludgeon, struck all the 
foxes, and killed them. Only one 
fox did he let go, after breaking one 
of ils legs. As for the rest, having 
killed them all, he carried them home 
to his house, and grew very rich [by 
selling their flesh and their skins]. 

Then Penaumbe came down to 
him, and spoke thus: " Whereas you 
and I were both equally poor, how 
did you kill such a number of foxes, 
and thereby become rich?" Pena- 
umbe rei)licd : " If you will come 
and dine \\\\\\ me, I will instruct you." 
But Penaumbe at once said : " I have 

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the centipedes and wasps, and in- 
structed him as before, he came fortli 
calmly. Again his father-in-law shot 
a whizzing arrow into the middle of a 
large moor, and sent him to fetch it; 
and, when he had entered the moor, 
at once set fire to it all round. There- 
upon, as he stood knowing no place 
of exit, a rat came and said: *'The 
inside is hollow-hollow ; the outside is 
narrow-narrow." Owing to its speak- 
ing thus, he trod on the place, where- 
upon he fell in and hid himself, during 
which time ihe fire burnt past. Then 
the rat brought out the whizzing arrow 
in its mouth, and presented it to him. 
The feathers of the arrow were 
brought in their mouths by all the 
rat's children. [The sequel narrates 
in a highly mythological manner a 
curious device, thanks to which the 
younger God at last got the better 
of his father-in-law, and lived hap- 
pily with the young lady, till the spirit 
moved him to start off on new amorous 
adventures. This sequel is not given 
here, as it has no connection with the 
subject of beast-stories.] 

heard all about it before," and . . 

went out. Descending 

to the bank of the river, he called, 
crying out as Penaumbe had done. 
The reply was : '* We will make a 
boat at once. Wait for us !" After 
a little while, he called out again. 
**We are going to make the poles. 
Wait for us !" said they. After a 
little longer, they started, a whole 
boatful of foxes. So Penaumbe first 
feigned dead. Then the foxes arrived, 
and said : ** Penaumbe here is to be 
pitied. Did he die of cold ? or did he 
die from want of food?" — with which 
words they all came close to Pena- 
umbe, and wept. But one fox among 
them, — a fox who limped, — spoke 
thus: ** I remember something which 
once happened. Weep at a greater 
distance ! " So all the foxes sat and 
wept ever further and further away. 
Penaumbe was unable to kill any of 
those foxes ; and, as he brandished 
his bludgeon, they all ran aw-ay. Not 
one did he catch, and he himself died 
a lamentable death. 

By some Ainos the names Panaumbe and Penaumbe are shortened to 
Panambe and Penambe. ^^ Pana tin />^ " signifies ''the thing (or person) on 
the lower course of the river." Pena un pe " signifies ** the thing (or person) 
on the upper course of the river." The story here quoted is but one of a whole 
cycle apparently sprung from the dislike and contempt felt by the coast Ainos 
for their kinsmen of the mountains. A second story belonging to the same 
cycle, is given at the end of Mr. Batchelor's Grammar, with such slight alterations 
from the native original as the English sense of decency requires. The gist 
of all the stories of Panaumbe and Penaumbe is the same. In all a clever 
trick is carried out successfully by the former, and plagiarized with ill success by 
the latter, who perishes in the attempt. The lesson taught is the advantage 
of cuteness and originality. Apparently Aino mothers have realized how 
wanting they themselves and their husbands are in those two qualities, and have 
laboured to train their children's minds so to to make abetter figure in the 

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world. They can scarcely be said to have laboured to any purpose. Some 
of the Ainos consider Panaumbe and Penaumbe to be really human personages. 
Others say tliat they are foxes in human shape. The latter view would there- 
fore make the whole cycle into a sub-division of the larger class of beast stories. 

The early Japanese had apparently no cycle of legends of the Panaumbe 
and Penaumbe class. Their mythology in general is connected in such a man- 
ner as to constitute cycles in time and space, — not cycles of parallel tales. 
Certain sets of legends belong to certain regions of Japan, and are joined by a 
soi-disant thread of history. Thus the legends told of the Gods Susanoo, 
Okuninushi, and others, form what may be termed the Izumo cycle, the province 
of Izumo being generally the theatre of their actions. A Kyushu and Inland 
Sea cycle is formed by the legends of the Emperor Jimmu Tenno and the 
Empress Jingo Kogo, who are indeed apparently but duplicates of each 
other. The province of Yamato forms a third mythic centre. But no series of 
tales running exactly parallel to each other, as do those of Panaumbe and 
Penaumbe among the Ainos, seems ever to have suggested itself to the 
Japanese imagination. There is, however, one tale in the Japanese mythology 
that may be compared with, — it were perhaps better to say, contrasted with, — 
those of the duel of wits which the Ainos delight to recount. It is also curious, 
as bearing a family resemblance to the story of Urashima, told above. It is 
narrated, both in the ^' Kojiki^^ and in the '^ Nihon-Gi^^^ of the two brethren 
Hoderi-no-Mikoto and Hoori-no-Mikoto, whose names may be Englished as 
Prince Fire-Shine and Prince Fire-Subside. It runs, literally translated, 
as follows : — 

His Augustness Fire-Shine was a prince who got his luck on the sea, and 
caught things broad of fin and things narrow of fin. His Augustness Fire- 
Subside was a prince who got his luck on the mountains, and caught things 
rough of hair and things soft of hair. Then His Augustness Fire-Subside said 
to his elder brother His Augustness Fire-Shine : " Let us mutually exchange, 
and use each other's luck.'* Nevertheless, though he thrice made the request, 
his elder brother would not accede to it ; but at last with difficulty the mutual 
exchange was effected. Then His Augustness Fire-Subside, undertaking the 
sea-luck, angled for fish, but never caught a single fish ; and moreover he lost the 
fish-hook in the sea. Thereupon his elder brother. His Augustness Fire-Shine, 
asked him for the fish-hook, saying: *' A mountain-luck is a lurk of its own, 
and a sea-luck is a luck of its own. Let us each now restore to the other the 
means of obtaining his former luck.'' To which the younger brother, His 
Augustness Fire-Subside, replied saying: " As for thy fish-hook, I did not 
get a single fish by angling with it ; and at last I lost it in the sea." But the 
elder brother required it of him the more urgently. So the younger brother, 
breaking his ten-hand-breadth-long sabre that was augustly girded on him, 
made of the fragments five hundred fish-hooks as compensation ; but he would 

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not take them. Again he made a thousand fish-hooks as compensation ; but 
he would not receive them, saying: *' I still want the real original fish-hook/* 

Hereupon, as the younger brother was weeping and lamenting by the sea- 
shore, the Deity Salt-Possessor came and asked him, saying: '* Why does 
Thine Augustness weep and lament?" He replied, saying: " I had borrowed 
a fish-hook from my elder brother, and have lost that fish-hook ; and as he 
asked me for it, I gave him many fish-hooks as compensation. But he refuses 
to accept them, saying : ' I still want the original fish-hook.' So I weep and 
lament for this." 'I'hen the Deity Salt-Possessor said : ** I will give good 
counsel to Thine Augustness :" — and therewith built a stout little boat without 
interstices, and set him in the boat, and instructed him, saying: "When I 
shall have pushed the boat off, go, on for some time. It will be a pleasant 
journey ; and if thou goest that journey in the boat, there will appear a palace 
built like fishes' scales, which is the palace of the Sea-God. When thou 
reachest the august gate at that Deity's palace, there will be a multitudinously 
branching cassia-tree above the well at its side. So if thou sit on the top of 
that tree, the Sea-God's daughter will see thee, and counsel thee." 

So, following these instructions, Prince Fire-Subside went a little way, and 
everything happened as he had been told ; and he forthwith climbed the 
cassia-tree, and sat there. Then, when the handmaidens of the Sea-God's 
daughter, Princess Luxuriant-Jewel, bearing jewelled vessels, were about to 
draw water, there was a refulgence in the well. On looking up, there was a 
beautiful young man. They thought it very strange. Then His Augustness 
Prince Fire-subside saw the handmaidens, and begged to be given some water. 
'Jhe handmaidens at once drew some water, put it into a jewelled vessel, and 
respectfully presented it to him. Then, without drinking the water, he 
loosened the jewel that hung at his august neck, took it in his mouth, and spat it 
into the jewelled vessel. Thereupon the jewel adhered to the vessel, and the 
hand-maidens could not separate one from the oilier. So they took the vessel 
with the jewel adhering to it, and presented it to Her Augustness the Princess. 
She, seeing the jewel, asked her handmaiden?, saying: "Is there perhaps 
some one inside the gate? " They replied, saying : " There is some one sitting 
on the top of the cassia-tree above our well. It is a very beautiful young 
man. He is more handsome even than our King. So, as he begged for 
water, we respectfully gave him water; but, without drinking the water, he 
spat this jewel into the vessel. As we were not able to separate one from the 
other, we have brought them to present to thee." Then Her Augustness, Prin- 
cess Luxuriant-Jewel, thinking it strange, went out to look, and was forthwith 
delighted at the sight. They exchanged glances, after which she spoke to her 
father, saying: "There is a beautiful person at our gate." Then the Sea-God 
himself went out to look; and with the words "This i)erson is Prince Fire- 
Subside, the august child of the Sun-Deity," led him into the interior of the 

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palace; and, spreading eigl.t layers of rugs of rea-asses' si ins, and spreading 
on the top other eight layers of silk rugs, and setting him on the top of them, 
arranged merchandise on tables holding an hundred, made an august banquet, 
and fortliNvitli gave him his daughter Princess Luxuriant-Jewel in marriage. So 
he dwelt in that Kind for three years. 

Now one night. Prince Fire-Subside thought of what had gone before, and 
heaved one deep sigh. So Her Augustness Princess Luxuriant-Jewel, hearing 
the sigh, informed her father, saying: " Though he has dwelt three years with 
us, he had never sighed; but last night he heaved one deep sigh. What may be 
the cause of it?'' The Great Deity her father asked his son-in-law, saying: "This 
morning I hear my daughter speak, saying: 'Though he has dwelt three years 
with us, he had never sighed ; but last night he heaved one deep sigh.' What 
may the cause be? Moreover, what was the cause of thy coming here?" 
Then the Prince told the Sea-God exactly how his elder brother had pressed 
him for the lost fish-hook. Thereupon the Sea-God summoned together all the 
fishes of the sea, great and small, and asked them, saying: "Is there per- 
chance any fish that has taken this fish-hook?" So all the fishes replied: 
" Lately the tai^ has complained of something sticking in its throat, and pre- 
venting it from eating; so it doubtless has taken the hook." On the throat of 
the tai being thereupon examined, there was the fish-hook in it. Being forth- 
with taken, the hook was washed and respectfully presented to His Augustness 
Fire-Subside, whom the Sea God then instructed, saying: "[The curse which] 
thou shalt speak when thou givest this fish-hook to thine elder brother is as 
follows: 'This fish-hook is a big hook, an eager hook, a poor hook, a silly 
hook ; ' — and with these words give it to him w ith thy hand behind thy back. 
Having done thus, — if thine elder brother make rice-fields in the upland, do 
Thine Augustness make rice-fields in the valleys ; and if thine elder brother make 
rice-fields in the valleys, do Thine Augustness make rice-fields in the upland. 
If thou do thus, thine elder brother will certainly be impoverished in the space 
of three years, owing to my ruling the water [and ordaining the weather so as 
constantly to favour thee and hurt him]. If thine elder brother, incensed at 
this, should attack thee, put forth this jewel which will cause the tide to flow, 
so as to drown him. If he express grief, put forth this jewel, which will cause 
the tide to ebb, so as to let him live. Thus shalt thou harrass him." With 
these words, the Sea-God gave to Prince Fire-Subside the tide-flowing jewel 
and the tide-ebbing jewel, — two in all, — and forthwith summoned together all 
the crocodiles, and asked them, saying : " Prince Fire-Subside is now about 
to proceed to the Upper Land. Who will in how many days respectfully escort 
him, and bring back a report ? " So each, according to the length of his body 
in fathoms, spoke, fixing a certain number of days, — one of them, a crocodile 
one fathom long, saying : " I will escort him, and come back in one day." So 

* A fish of the family Sfaroidei, much prized by the Japanese. 

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then the Sea-God said to the crocodile one falliom long : ^' If that be so, do 
thou respectfully escort him. Do not alarm him while crossing the middle of 
the sea." Forlhwith he seated him upon the crocodile's head, and saw him ofT. 
So the crocodile respectfully escorted him home in one day, as he had promised. 
When the crocodile was about to return. Prince Fire-Subside untied the 
stiletto which was girded on him, and, setting it on the crocodile's neck, sent 
the creature back. 

Then Prince Fire-Subside gave the fish-hook to his elder brother, exactly 
according to the Sea-God's words of instruction. So thenceforward the elder 
brother became poorer, and came to attack him with renewed savage intent. 
When he was about to make the attack. Prince Fire-Subside put forth the 
tide-flowing jewel to drown him. On his expressing grief, he put forth the tide- 
ebbing jewel to save him. When he had thus been harrassed, he bowed his 
head, saying: "I henceforward will be Thine Augustness's guard by day and 
night, and will respectfully serve thee." And down to the present day his vari- 
ous posturings while drowning are performed at the Imperial Court by his 
descendants. — [There was a clan in the South-Western corner of Japan, which 
forms the modern provinces of Satsuma and Osumi, that claimed descent from 
this ill-starred elder brother, and who, down to historical times, furnished the 
infantry of the Imperial Guard. They were termed Hayabito, Hayato, or Haito, 
and are by some considered to have been the remnants of ancient non-Japanese 

The following short myths account for certain peculiarities in natural 
objects : — 

A certain god, who went out fishing 
one day, had his hand caught by a 
shell-fish, and was drowned in the 
brine of the sea. Thereupon the 
Goddess whose province it was, hav- 
ing rescued him and brought him 
back to land, drove together all the 
fishes both great and small, and en- 
quired of them, saying: " Will you 
respectfully serve the august son of 
the Heavenly Gods?" — upon which 
all the fishes declared that they would 
respectfully serve him. Only the 
bcche-de-mer said nothing. Then 
the Goddess spoke to the beche-de- 
nier, saying : ** And this mouth is a 


Suddenly there was a large house on 
the top of a hill, wherein were six 
persons beautifully arrayed, but con- 
stantly quarrelling. Whence they 
came, was not known. Thereupon 
Okikurumi came and said : *' Oh ! 
you bad hares ! you wicked hares ! 
Who should not know your origin? 
The children in the sky were pelting 
each other with snow-balls ; and the 
snow-balls fell into this world of men. 
As it would have been a pity to 
waste heaven's snow, the snow-balls 
were turned into hares ; and those 
hares are you. You who live in this 
world of mine, this world of human 

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mouth that gives no reply ! '* — and beings, must be quiet. What is it 
with these words, slit its mouth with that you are brawling about ? *' With 
her stiletto. So to the present day these words, Okikurumi seized a 
the b6che-de-mer has a slit mouth. fire-brand, and beat each of the six 

with it in turn. Thereupon all the 
hares ran away. This is the origin 
of the Hare-God ; and for this reason 
the body of the hare is white because 
made of snow, while its ears, — which 
are the part where it was charred by 
the fire-brand, — are black. 

Aino myths of this nature might be quoted to a large extent. The 
Japanese mythology deals rather with stories founded on fanciful explanations 
of names of places. None of these are given here, as they could only be appre- 
ciated by those to whom the Japanese language is familiar. But the curious 
reader is'referred, inter alia^ to pp. 178, 181, 211, and 213 of the translation of 
the ^^ Kojiki^^ forming the Supplement to Vol. X. of the ** Transactions of the 
Asiatic Society of Japan." 

The following are accounts of monsters : — 

The God Susanoo, having been 
expelled from heaven, and having 
wandered off to the head-waters of 
the River Hi in the land of Izumo, 
found an old couple weeping upon 
its banks. " What is the cause of 
your crying?" said Susanoo. The 
old man answered, saying: " I had 
originally eight young daughters. 
But the eight-forked serpent of Koshi 
has come every year and devoured 
one, and it is now its time to come 
and devour the last. That is why we 
weep." Then he asked him : '* What 
is its form like?" The old man an- 
swered, saying : *' Its eyes are like 
cherries. It has one body, with eight 
heads and eight tails. Moreover on 
its body grows moss, also chamaccy- 
paris-trees, and cryptomerias. Its 
length extends over eight valleys and 


In ancient days an enormous ser- 
pent used to commit such ravages, 
that the people, both Japanese and 
Aino, were like to be exterminated. 
So huge was it, that it could coil its 
body 3ix times round the Island of 
Rishiri, that rises so high out of the 
water. All the Gods took counsel 
together, and cut at the serpent with 
knives and swords. For some time, 
as soon as the serpent/ was cut 
through, the two halves instantly 
stuck together again. But at last it 
died. From its wounds issued forth 
gadflies and other stinging insects, 
from which are descended those we 
see at the present day. Still the 
death of the parent was a boon, and 
the people revived from that moment. 

According to some, the monster 

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eight hills ; and its belly is constantly 
bloody and inflamed. Then Susanoo 
said to the old man : 
*' Do you distill some eight-fold re- 
fined liquor. Also make a fence 
round about ; in that fence make 
eight gates ; at each gate tie eight 
platforms ; on each platform put a 
liquor vat ; and into each vat pour the 
eight-fold refined liquor, and wait.'^ 
So as they waited after having thus 
prepared everything in accordance 
with his bidding, the eight-forked ser- 
pent came truly, as the old man had 
said, and immediately dipped a head 
into each vat, and drank the liquor. 
Thereupon it .was intoxicated with 
drinking, and all the heads lay down 
and slept. Then Susanoo drew his 
sabre ten hand-breadths long, that 
was augustly girded upon him, and 
cut the serpent in pieces, so that the 
River Mi flowed on changed into a 
river of blood. 

mentioned in the above legend was 
not a serpent, but a centipede. This 
story is simply one version of the en- 
counter of the Japanese hero Tawara 
Toda Hidesato with the gigantic cen- 
tipede that is said to have lived on 
Mount Mikami near Lake Biwa in 
the province of Omi. We shall 
therefore probably be justified in 
assuming that the story, in whatso- 
ever shape, is not originally Aino, 
but borrowed b.y the Ainos from the 

Genuinely mythological tales seldom have any moral tendency. This 
remark applies with special force to the mythology of Japan. Indeed, the 
absence of morality in their mythology is so patent, as to have struck the Japa- 
nese commentators themselves ; and they explain it by the patriotic assertion 
that their countrymen needed no moral teaching, because they were perfect 
already, and not depraved like the Chinese and foreign nations generally! The 
consequence is that all the Japanese stoiies having a moral bearing may 
be traced back to Chinese or Buddhist influence, and therefore do not concern 
us here. The Ainos, on the other hand, are fond of moralizing in a humble, 
and generally an extremely prosy manner. The following example of one 
their stories belonging to this category is an unusually favourable specimen. But 
the present writer, though unable to lay his hand on any exact Chinese original 
of it, suspects that it is derived, viA Japan, from Chinese or Buddhist sources. 
It may be entitled 

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One day a wizard told a man whom he knew, that, if anyone were to go up 
a certain mountain peak and jump off on to the belt of clouds below, he 
would be able to ride about upon them as on a horse, and see the whole world. 
Believing this, the man did as directed, and in very truth was enabled to ride 
about on the clouds. He visited the whole world in this fashion, and brought 
back with him a map which he had drawn of the whole world both of men, and 
Gods. On arriving back at the mountain-peak in Aino-land, he stepped off the 
cloud onto the land, and, descending to the valley, told the wizard how succes- 
ful and delightful the journey had been, and thanked him for the opportunity he 
had given him of thus seeing so many strange sights. 

The wizard was astounded. For what he had told the Aino was a wicked 
lie, invented with the sole intention of causing the death of this man, whom, for 
reasons best known to himself, he hated. Still, as that which he had meant 
simply as an idle tale was apparently an actual fact, he decided to see the 
world himself in this easy fashion. So, going to the top of the mountain and 
seeing a belt of clouds a short way below, he jumped onto it, but — was simply 
smashed to pieces in the valley beneath. That night the God of (he mountain 
appeared to the first (good) man in a dream, and said : *^ The wizard has met 
with the death which his fraud and folly deserve. You I kept from hurt, be- 
cause you were a good man. So when, in obedience to the wizard's advice, 
you leapt off onto the cloud, I bore you up and showed you the world, in order 
to make you w-iser. Let all men learn from this, how wickedness leads to con- 
dign punishment.^' 


The two sets of stories given in the above pages could scarcely be more 
divergent in general complexion. Yet they have been chosen from among a 
number, not at all with the view of bringing dissimilarity into special promi- 
nence, but rather on account of the existence of certain points of contact, which 
make comparison possible. Nine out of ten of the early Japanese stories are 
myths pure and simple, airy phantoms of the imagination. The heroes of them 
are generally men, or gods who are the counterparts of men. The Aino tale- 
teller, on the other hand, generally wishes either to point a moral or to account 
for some natural fact ; and the personages of his fairy-land are mostly birds and 
beasts. Not only, indeed, are birds and beasts the actors in his fairy-land. 
They are his actual gods. He worships the owl, the salmon, the fox, the wolf, 
the hare, the otter, and others yet. As for that redoubtable animal the bear, 

* This slory, having been written down afterwards from memor}', unavoidably appears in 
a less genuinely Aino form than the others. 

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the Ainos constantly speak of it, not by one of its numerous proper designa- 
tions, but simply as ^' God." It is true that among the Japanese also we meet 
with traces of the deification of animals. The Hare-God mentioned on page 
21 is a case in point. But, speaking generally, what attracted the early 
Japanese mind was, not the brute creation, but the world of men. 

If the Japanese have few beast-stories, the Ainos have apparently no popular 
tales of heroes. The chieftain Penri, though in daily contact with the present 
writer for weeks, and though talkative in the extreme and seemingly willing to 
communicate all the traditions of his country, could scarcely recollect the name of 
any man of note, could not tell of one whom the nation had singled out as its 
favourite hero. This is the more strange as, until recently, the whole history 
of the Ainos has consisted of wars against the Japanese and against each other. 
With the early Japanese the case was far different. They had Jimmu Tenno, 
the descendant of the Sun, the Heaven-sent Conqueror. They had Jingo K5g5, 
the brave Empress whose junks were borne across the sea-plain on fishes' backs 
to Korea's gold and silver land. They had Yamato-take, the subduer of the 
aborigines, famed equally as a warrior and as an amorous swain: Down to the 
present day these personages live in the national mind. Even the learned 
believe in them, as, until recently, even the learned of Western Europe believed 
in King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. 

Though differing so widely in their general tendencies, there is an agreement 
between the early Japanese and the Aino view of things on various negative 
points. But then most primitive nations agree in lacking, for instance, the 
notions of transmigration, incarnation, vicarious atonement. More peculiar is 
the absence in both mythologies of any legend of a deluge. The only thing at 
first sight pointing in that direction is a tradition which the Ainos preserve of 
certain geographical changes in the Island of Yezo, to the effect that the sea 
formerly divided it in two, running from about Tomakomai on the South to the 
mouth of the River Ishikari on the North. At that time, say they, the higher 
mountains alone stood out as islands ; but gradually the land gained upon 
the sea. Possibly this tradition may be founded on a confused recollection of 
some of their fellows having formerly lived on the Main Island of Japan, 
divided from the rest by the Strait of Tsugaru. But in any case, there is 
no trace in this of what we call '* the Deluge." Other accounts given by the 
Ainos of tidal waves, and of rivers overflowing their banks, are simply matters 
of recent history. In the early Japanese traditions there is not even that little 
said about any devastations by water. Neither has fire impressed the imagina- 
tion of the two races much more than water has done. Living, as they do, in 
a land of earthquakes and volcanoes, they have few striking legends connected 
with those phenomena. The two mythologies agree likewise in being silent 
concerning the end of the world. Both lack all connection with morality. 

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Both lack priests and prophets, and with them an elaborate theology. In fact, 
both belong to a very primitive stage of mental development. To neither has 

yet come any echo from the banks of Ganges or of Jordan. 

Different readers will doubtless judge differently of the intrinsic worth of 
the two mythologies. In any case, they should carefully remember one 
important fact. It is that, excepting stories like those here given, and a few 
almost metre-less songs, the Ainos have no other literature at all. Panaumbe 
and Penaumbe, the serpent that coiled itself six times round the Island of 
Rishiri, the man whom the bear lured into Hades, — these tales and a few 
dozen more constitute their whole intellectual baggage. What the Japanese 
myth-makers would have evolved besides myths if, some fifteen centuries ago, 
Chinese thought and Indian thought had not made their way hither, it is impos- 
sible to say. But since then, the mythology of Japan has been the least 
important factor in the mental state of the nation. It might have been clean 
swept away, and the nation would scarcely have felt the change. The intellec- 
tual treasure of the Japanese was elsewhere, — stores of poetry, romance, and 
history, drawn partly from China, partly from India, partly from the new-born 
consciousness of Japan itself. This state had been reached more than a millen- 
nium ago. Of our own day it is surely not necessary to speak. 

In concluding this section of the subject, and as a warning to others who might 
be inclined to accept statements of fact made by the Ainos with regard to their 
own history, the present writer would remark that his own impression is that 
such statements made by any uncultured people are quite untrustworthy, unless 
supported by extraneous evidence. Tests of Aino inconsistency and unreli- 
ableness crop up wherever proof can be applied. The contradictory assertions 
made with regard to the question of the former presence of Ainos on the Main 
Island of Japan has already been alluded to. Again, take the v/orship of 
Yoshitsune, with respect to which Japanese and European travellers have said 
so much. Mr. Batchelor asserts that the Ainos tell him that they never 
worship Yoshitsune. The present writer was positively told that they do 
worship him, though not often. A third person would probably be answered 
in some third manner. It may be interesting to note in passing that the con- 
tradictory assertions made concerning Yoshitsune's Yezo adventures might all 
be equally true, owing to ambiguity of expression. By '* Yezo,'" Europeans 
designate the single island, whose present official Japanese name is " Hokkai- 
do." But the old, and in Japan still partly prevailing, usage does not thus 
limit its meaning. '* Yezo'* denotes any place where the Yezo people, i.e. the 
Ainos, live. Thus Southern Saghalien is Yezo, the Kuriles are Yezo, Northern 
Japan used to be Yezo. It is therefore perfectly possible that Yoshitsune may, 
as history tells us, have died in Northern Japan, without ever crossing the 
strait of Tsugaru, and may yet have been in ** Yezo." The error would be in 
the interpretation only, not in the assertion. But it is, in any case, not by 

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interrogating the Ainos that we shall get at the truth. How very little Aino 
evidence goes for, may be gathered from the fact that they assert tambaku 
(tobacco^ to be a native Aino word, and believe that their ancestors were 
always tobacco-smokers from the earliest ages ! The only change which has 
taken place according to them is that, whereas their ancestors and the gods 
smoked pipes only, they themselves are getting to enjoy foreign cigarettes ! 
Evidently "the earliest ages" were a very short time ago. But it were useless 
to pursue this subject further. It would be like breaking a butterfly upon a 
wheel to demonstrate in proper form and with all gravity that men, in com- 
parison with whom the peasantry of Europe are savants^ must be indifferent 
guides on matters of history and criticism. The note of caution has only here 
been struck, because an opportunity for doing so presented itself. It need 
hardly be added that a caution nearly as great must be exercised with regard 
to the statements made by the early Japanese, as preserved in their so-called 
histories, the ^^ KojikV^ and ^^ Nihon-Giy The present writer, having treated 
of this subject at length in another place, "^ need not now refer to it more 


A comparison of the two mythologies seems to reveal even less connection 
than exists between the two languages. But, failing organic connection, is 
there no inorganic resemblance between the two languages and mythologies, 
caused by the long proximity of the two nations ? 

There are traces of such a resemblance. It has already been hinted on 
page 10 that Japanese and other Tartar influence may have been at work in 
moulding the construction of the Aino sentence. This is a matter of specula- 
tion. But when we come to the question of loan-words, there is no longer 
room for doubt. Mr. Batchelor gives a list of half a hundred Aino words 
borrowed from Japanese. But it would not be difficult to get together as many 
more. Just to quote a few, there are ataye, " price ; " 7neko^ " cat " (Jap. 
neho) ; viungi^ " wheat" or " barley " (Jap. miigi) ; pashui, " chopsticks " (Jap. 
hashi) ; ratchaku^ " candle " (Jap. rosoku) ; shoinba^ " buckwheat " (Jap. soba) ; 
^^r^, " straw bag " (Jap. tawara) ; taiiondaru^ "to engage" (Jap. tanoinii) ; 
the modern names of the months, such shojjg7vacIit\ "January" (Jap. slid- 
gwatsu) ; the Sinico-Japanese numerals, which have come into modern Aino use 
in certain contexts, etc., etc. 

Very curious and instructive is it to notice the letter-changes that occur in 
the Japanese words which the Ainos adopt. Some of these changes simply 
result from the fact that the loan is made from the Northern Japanese/^/^/>, not 

♦Supplement lo Vol. X. of the " Transaclions of the Asiatic Suciely of Japan," p. XLIV 
et seq. 

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from the standard tongue, and are therefore not changes at all, so far as the 
Ainos are concerned. Thus the nasalization in such words as kambt\ " paper'* 
(properly kavii) ; shinju, " forty," (properly shi-ju), is but a common Northern 
corruption."^ So is the substitution of /* for e in kani^ ''money'* (properly 
kane), and of the syllable chi lox tsit in such words as knchi, "boots" (properly 
kutsu) ; chiknnai, " a fine " (properly tsugniioi). The substitution of sh for s in 
somba, ''buckwheat" (for soba), and similar words, is not a Northern Japanese, 
but an Aino peculiarity, s and sh being interchangeable in Aino. 

Some of the changes observed are not mispronunciations, but genuine relics 
of archaic diction. Thus mittaru, " to sew " ; tanondaru^ *' to engage," preserve 
a termination taru which is no longer heard from the lips of the Japanese 
people, though still used in literary compositions. It is the '* attributive form " of 
one of the past tenses ; but in Aino it has been adopted, or rather adapted, as 
the suffix showing that any given word borrowed from the Japanese is a 
verb, and not a noun. Between aujilcl or aungty the Aino for ''fan," 
and Japanese dgi\ there may at first sight seem to be scant similarity. 
But the origin of the Aino word is explained when we remember that the kafta 
spelling and original pronunciation of ogi is a-fu-gi {T y ^*). They sound in 
such positions was early dropped in Japanese ; and the n in Aino aungixs ac- 
counted for by the influence of the Northern patois with its love of nasalization, 
as mentioned above. A similar instance is afforded by teuna^ the Aino for 
"adze." Teitna is simply the Japanese word chona pronounced in an old- 
fashioned way. Such Aino forms 2iS pakari^ "measure" (Jap. hakari) \ pashtii^ 
"chopsticks" (Jap. haski)] p!ncht\ "flint and steel ^* (Jap. hi-uchi) \ puri^ 
"custom " (Jap. /i/r/), have a peculiar interest, as adding a link to the chain of 
evidence which tends to show that Japanese // (f) was originally/. The 
loan-words with initial / in Aino are precisely such as were almost certainly 
borrowed at an early period, when Japanese // (f) may still have had the/ 
sound. At the present day, when the Ainos borrow Japanese words beginning 
with// ory, it is mostly the f sound which prevails. Thus fit rake taru (Jap. 
hiraketant)y "to be civilized," "to civilize." 

Some of the loan-words illustrate the queer transformations of meaning 
that take place in language. What Japanese scholar, for instance, would 
imagine the Aino kingai^ "luggage," to be of Japanese origin? It is so, 
nevertheless. It is none other than the word yt/-^^^, "a change of clothes." 
Apparently a change of clothes formed the chief part of the luggage which 
Japanese travellers put on the back of their Aino guide. The Ainos, not 

♦ Most Japanese travellers in Yezo liave believed tlie Aino word for " mounlain," uttpuri, 
to be a corruption of llie Japanese nobori, ** an ascent.*' But on this supposition, it should 
liave been nasalized into nombori or Jitimbttri, as the Northern Japanese peasants would pro- 
nounce the word. It seems more likely that nuptiri is a pure Aino word, derived possibly from 
nup ri, " high on the moor," 

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knowing how restricted was the meaning of the term, widened its application 
so as to include luggage of every sort. Again the name of Shamo, by which 
the Japanese are known in Yezo, seems to be a corruption of shanion^ "a Budd- 
hist priest (Sanskrit srdmand)^ Buddhist missionaries having been the pioneers 
of Japanese civilization in the North. Salmon^ the Aino for ''priest," is simply 
the Japanese Sainton^ ''a ritual," the thing having been mistaken for the man. 
A more general lesson taught, — perhaps we should say a general fact 
exemplified, — by the Japanese words found in Aino, is that civilization tends to 
carry its terminology with it. Such implements as the awl, the saw, the ham- 
mer, the kettle, the gun; such animals as the horse, the cow, and the cat; the 
metals, the chief cereals, have all taken their Japanese names WMth them from 
Japan to Aino-land. Similarly Japanese are the words for **book," *' paper,*' 
''ink," "medicine," "physician," "money," showing how such little hearsay 
acquaintance as the Ainos have with literature and with the scientific treatment 
of disease (for in their natural state they trusted to prayer alone as a healer), 
has been derived from their more cultured neighbours. 

Turning to the Aino mythology, we find that it, too, shows traces of Japa- 
nese influence. The story of the descent of the Aino race from a dog has 
clearly sprung from the similarity of the word Ainu to inu^ the Japanese for 
"dog," and to ainoko^ the Japanese for "half-caste," as already slated in the 
preceding section. Probably the story is of Japanese origin, the idea of mar- 
riages between dogs and women being one with which, from olden times, the 
Japanese imagination has been familiar. The vimduchi^ or "water-sprites," 
who, say the Ainos, drag horses into ponds and pull out their entrails, remind 
us of the kappa of modern Japanese folk-lore. Most striking is the borrowing 
by the Ainos of some of the chief religious terms. Thus the word nusa 
or nusha^ by which they denote a collection of inao (the whittled sticks which 
they set up as symbols of the gods in every act of worship), can be traced 
back as a Japanese word to the dawn of Japanese literature. The same is the 
case with K^w/*, " prayer," which is archaic Japanese now fallen into disuse. 
The word "God" itself, kamui, is from the Japanese kami {(zoy\i. pashui {xo\\\ 
hashi for the insertion of w), primarily " above," " superior," hence " a superior," 
c-g- ^* a governor," " a god." That the Japanese, and not the Aino, is the 
original, is proved by the greater vitality, — so to speak, — of the former. The 
Aino kamui is a substantive, and nothing more. The Japanese kami still lives, - 
as of old, as a pliable word, which may be a noun, an adjective, or a particle, 
according to circumstances. It is more organic. 

Such examples as nomi^ Shamo, kingai^ and others that might be quoted, 
show that Aino words, which at first sight seem purely native, are sometimes, 
on closer investigation, found to have been borrowed from the Ainos' more 
civilized neighbours. The conviction of the present writer is that a consider- 

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able portion of the Aino vocabulary would turn out to be Japanese, if only we 
had before us an Aino literature preserving the various older forms of the 
language. Even as it is, and with little but the contemporary Aino colloquial 
to go by, a thorough and impartial investigation might disinter, from amid the 
Aino vocabulary, words not yet claimed for a Japanese source. The Aino 
mythology seems to be, on the whole, clearer of foreign influence. Doubtless 
the Japanese who, from the earliest ages downwards, were chiefly brought into 
contact with the Ainos, were among the most ignorant of their nation, — fisher- 
men, pedlars, rude soldiers, adventurers, criminals fleeing from the law. They 
unconsciously taught the Ainos a number of Japanese words; they also taught 
them the rudiments of certain necessary arts. But they were not likely to in- 
fluence very deeply the dreamings of the myth-makers. 

One difficulty, among others, in such an investigation as the tracking of 
Japanese words and thoughts in the Aino language and mythology, is that it 
can only be carried on by specialists, and that these specialists are the very 
persons, who, from a natural predilection for their own subject, will instinc- 
tively shrink from the consideration of anything that may seem likely to 
diminish its beauty or importance. Still, the fact of wholesale borrowing is one 
which the specialist, however reluctantly, must face in every country of the 
Far East. Thus the Japanese scholar, if he claims for himself much that 
superficially seems to be Aino, does so knowing that he himself has to pay 
back to China a vastly larger debt. For even the very oldest relics of the 
Japanese language, the oldest traditions of the Japanese nation, when placed 
under the microscope of criticism, testify to the fact, so unwelcome to the 
Japanese literati of the old school, that there is no known time at which Japan 
was not more or less under the shadow uf Chinese influence. 


Here a further question arises, the answer to which contains the 
most interesting information that Aino studies yield. The question is: if the 
Ainos have borrowed so much from the Japanese, are then the Japanese under 
no similar obligations to the Ainos? 

No, and yes. On the one hand, it is at present impossible to point to any 
words of the standard Japanese language as being certainly derived from Aino. 
At most, we may assume it as not unlikely that the names of some few animals 
and plants, which belong to both languages, were Aino before they were 
Japanese. Thus rakko, **a seal,'* may have been originally Aino. The 
initial r, which is foreign to Japanese linguistic habits, favours the sup- 
position, together with the fact that the animal is known only in the northern 
portion of Japan, whither the Ainos were the first to penetrate. Taking a 


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wider view of the subject of such international borrowings, the analogy of the 
Celtic loans to French, Italian, and English, the adoption by the European colo- 
nists in America of such aboriginal American terms as "squaw*' and " wig- 
wam, '* and other instances, all the world over, of more civilized races occasionally 
borrowing from their less civilized predecessors, show that the chances are in 
favour of Aino having lent some words to Japanese, and lead us at the same 
time to infer that such loans have been confined within very narrow limits. 
But there is one portion of the field to which this reasoning does not apply. 
It does not apply to geographical nomenclature. Conquerors are rarely, if 
ever, at the pains of re-naming all the towns, rivers, and provinces of a coun- 
try. They mostly begin by adopting the native names, mispronouncing 
them of course to a greater or less degree. It is only when they build new 
towns or villages, or when, in process of time, new associations here and there 
suggest new appellations, that they will invent names derived from their own 
language. The Americans built Salem, Portland, and Concord where no towns 
had stood ; and the names are English accordingly. But they have left the 
Potomac and the Mississippi, Niagara, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, and scores 
of other aboriginal Indian designaiions, just as they found them. In time, as 
the alien names increase, so will the aboriginal names tend to disappear toge- 
ther with ancient landmarks. But they never can disappear completely. The 
names of several places in Normandy, indeed the word " Normandie " itself, 
still testify, after the lapse of a millennium, to the presence in North-Western 
France of a race that has left scarcely any other trace behind. So with the 
Celtic name borne to this very day by Saxon Britain. 

From the commencement of his Aino studies, the present writer set him- 
self to an investigation of Lhe meanings of the place-names both of Yezo and 
of the Main Island, with the object of discovering what proportion, if any, of the 
geographical nomenclature of Japan could be traced back to Aino sources. The 
interest of this peculiar line of research is by no means simply philological. It 
is historical. If it can be proved that there are Aino place-names all over 
Japan, then we have an irrefragable confirmation of the hypothesis put forward 
by several writers, but never yet proved, to the effect that the Ainos were the 
aborigines of the whole archipelago. If, on the contrary, there are no Aino 
names in certain provinces, there is a strong presumption against the Ainos 
ever having inhabited those provinces. The results obtained will perhaps be 
thought small. They are very small indeed compared with the trouble taken. 
But it must be remembered that the idea of searching in place-names for infor- 
mation concerning the aborigines of Japan is a new one, and that the condi- 
tions under which the investigation has to be made are peculiar.* Instead of 

*So far as known lo llie present wriier, ll»e only previous adumbration of this line of 
research is that given by Mr. Shirano Kniin, in a learned article on cave-dwellings, printed in 
Vol. LXI. (August 1882) of a periodical entitled ** Gnkttgei Shiriii,** wherein he demonstrates 
the Aino origin of Otokuni, the name of a place in the province of Yamashiro, 

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simply stating results, it may be useful first to describe these conditions. Other 
students will be better enabled to pursue the same investigation in greater detail. 

But before entering on this subject, the ground must be cleared of a pre- 
liminary objection. With what logic, it may be urged, do you invite us to 
accept a great extension of the Aino race in early Japan, when it is a physiolo- 
gical fact, vouched for by so high an authority as Dr. Baelz,* that there is little 
or no trace of Aino blood in the Japanese people? In reply to this, some 
would perhaps quote such examples as New England, whence the Indians have 
vanished, leaving nought behind them but their place-names. In Japan, how- 
ever, the circumstances are different from those of New England. There has 
undoubtedly been constant intermarriage between the conquerors and the 
native race upon the Aino border. We can infer this from history. Those who 
have travelled in Yezo know it by personal experience to-day. Nevertheless, 
these intermarriages may well consist with the absence of any trace of Aino blood 
in the population. As a matter of fact, the Northern Japanese, in whose veins 
there should be most Aino blood, are no whit hairier than their compatriots in 
Central and Southern Japan. Any one may convince himself of this by looking 
at the coolies, — almost all Nambu or Tsugaru men, — working in the Hakodate 
streets during the summer months, when little clothing is worn. But the 
paradox is only on the surface. The fact is that the half-castes die out, — a 
fate which seems, in many quarters of the world, to follow the miscegenation 
of races of widely divergent physique. That this is the true explanation of 
the phenomenon, was suggested to the present writer's mind by a consideration 
of the general absence of children in the half-breed Aino families of his ac- 
quaintance. Thus, of four brothers in a certain village where he staid, three have 
died leaving widows without male children, and with only one or two little girls 
between the three. The fourth has children of both sexes ; but they suffer from 
affections of the chest and from rheumatism. Mr. Batchelor, whose opportunities 
for observation have been unusually great, concurs in considering this explana- 
tion as sulTicient as it is simple. There are scores of mixed marriages every 
year. There are numerous half-breeds born of these marriages. But the second 
generation is almost barren ; and such children as are born, — whether it be 
from two half-breed parents, or from one half-breed parent and a member of 
either pure race, are generally weakly. In the third or fourth generation the 
family dies out. It may be added that the half-breeds have a marked tendency 
to baldness, and that their bodies are much less hairy than those of the genuine 
Ainos. This fact has doubtless helped to cause the divergence of opinion with 
regard to Aino hairiness. For the comparatively smooth half-breeds usually 
speak Aino, dress Aino fashion, and are accounted to be Ainos, so that travel- 
lers are likely to be misled, unless constantly on their guard, — unless, in fact, 

*See p. 336 of his css.iy already quoted, entilled *' Die Korpcrlichen Eigenschaften der 

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they are scientific observers, not mere " globe-trotters.*' There seem to be half- 
breeds in all the villages whither Japanese pedlars and fishermen have pene- 
trated. There have therefore probably, at some time or other, been half-breeds 
in every portion of Japan where the two races have come in contact. 

To return to our main subject. Two theories may be held with regard to 
the former presence of Ainos in Japan. One is that they occupied the 
whole country before the arrival of the Japanese. This theory has been 
advocated by Professor Milne in papers read before the Royal Anthropological 
Society of London, and the Asiatic Society of Japan ;* and it has sometimes 
been stated as a fact by others, who, however, fail to advance the proof of their 
assertion. The arguments used by Professor Milne are chiefly derived from 
archaeological finds, from the presence in all parts of Japan of kitchen-middens 
and of stone implements, such as are met with in still greater quantities in 
modern Yezo. To his arguments, which should be consulted at length in the 
papers already mentioned, it has been objected by Professor Morse and others 
that there is no positive proof that the remains attributed by him to the Ainos 
may not have been left by some still older race, or by the early Japanese them- 
selves. The presence in the kitchen-middens of fragments of pottery has 
more especially been quoted against him. For the modern Ainos are not known 
to make pottery ; and it is asserted that no race, having once learnt such an 
art, will forget it. The second theory, which is that commonly held, is that the 
Ainos are essentially a Northern people, whose habitat has never extended 
much further South than the region occupied by them during the early Middle 
Ages. This theory cannot be traced to any particular authority. It is rather 
the natural result of the facts present to the memory of recent generations of 
Japanese, who have had before their eyes visible proofs of the presence of 
Ainos in the North, but to whom the notion of Ainos in the South as well has 
never had the occasion to suggest itself. The light thrown on the matter by 
Japanese historians is as follows : — 

They show us incidentally that the name *' Yezo"t was anciently applied 
to the Northern provinces of Japan proper. Indeed to the present day there 
may be seen at the village of Taga, near Sendai, in the province of Rikuzen, 
a stone bearing an inscription to the effect that the distance thence to the 
frontier of Yezo w^as one hundred and twenty r/', i.e. fifty English miles. J 
Sendai itself is between the 38th and 39th parallel of latitude, and over two 
hundred miles from the Northern extremity of the Main Island, that is, more 

♦Royal Anllir. Soc, May 1881 ; Trans, of the Asiat. Soc. of Japan, Vol. VIII. Pt. I., and 
Vol. X. Pt. II. 

•f'^Veeo'* is a word unknown to the modern Ainos, who call tlieir own country i4///M 
^/o5//<>/, i.e. Ainoland. It may be a corruption of the Japanese IVjebisti, "barbarian," 
itself a word of doubtful origin. 

J The modern official Japanese ri is equal to 2.44 English miles. But the ancient ri was 
only one sixth part of that distance. 

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than half-way from that extremity to the site of the modern capital, Tokyo. 
The earliest almost contemporary notice of the Ainos in Japanese history 
is a paragraph in the ^^ Nihon-Gi'^ (compiled A.D. 720), which tells us of the 
submission made by several thousands of Ainos, who inhabited the province now 
called Echigo, to the generals of the Empress Kogyoku in the year 642. Six- 
teen years later, a Japanese fleet of a hundred and eighty junks sailed up the 
West coast of the Main Island, and smote the Ainos dwelling in the districts of 
Akita and Nushiro (the present province of Ugo). It is then that such familiar 
Aino names as Oshima, Shiribeshi, and Ifuri[so] are first mentioned. But 
they would seem (as acutely remarked by the learned author of the San-goku 
Tsuran) to have designated places on the Main Island, not, as now, places in 
the Island of Yezo. During the reign of the same Empress Kogyoku, who 
had meantime assumed the new name of Saimei, a couple of Ainos were 
presented as curiosities to the Emperor of China ; and accordingly we find 
the Aino race mentioned under the name of " Hairy Men " in the annals 
of the Tang dy nasty ."**" In 801 the celebrated general Tamura Maro made 
his expedition against the Ainos on the Eastern side of the Main Island, 
whence they appear to have been more difficult to dislodge than from the West 
coast. It was he who set up the frontier stone above alluded to. The last 
notable expedition against the Ainos was in the year 811, as mentioned in 
the Shaku Nihon-Gi, After that time, the Ainos gave no further trouble on 
the Main Island. Their removal across the Strait of Tsugaru to Yezo would 
seem to have taken place gradually. Indeed Japanese authors say that a few 
were still left on the Main Island as late as a hundred years ago. The Japanese 
did not long hesitate to follow them into their new home. But at first, and for 
some centuries, these Japanese were only stray priests and adventurers. It was 
not till the fifteenth century that South- Western Yezo became the appanage 
of the feudal lords of Matsumae ; nor was it till the present century that the au- 
thority of the central Japanese Government was extended over the whole island. 

History proper teaches us no more than this. Going back to mythical times, 
we read in the ''Kojiki'' and ''Nihon-Gi'' of barbarians being subdued by Prince 
Yamato-take in the various provinces on the way between the pro^nce of Owari 
and the province of Musashi, in which latter the modern city of Toky5 stands, — 
that is in the centre of the Main Island ; also in Izumo on the coast of the Sea of 
Japan, not far from the South- Western extremity of the Main Island. Jimmu 
Tenno likewise, when coming eastwards up the Inland Sea from his original home 
in Kyushu, is represented as everywhere encountering hostile aborigines. The 
natural inference is that these aborigines were none other than the Ainos.t For, 

*The Oilnese liisloi ian expresses himself thus : ** On the Eastern frontier of the land of 
Japan there is a barrier of great mountains, beyond which is the land of the Hairy Men." 

fAn influence which the discovery that some of these aborigines are mentioned under 
Aino names (as stated on p. 18) helps to justify. This consideration, being a new one, had 
not hitherto been brought into the argument. 

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as their history during the period authentically known to us has consisted in 
their being constantly pressed back by the advancing Japanese, why should we 
imagine a break in the process at any given date in antiquity? To this it has 
been objected that there is no proof that the early barbarians mentioned in 
Japanese history were Ainos, and that it is quite possible that various barbarous 
races may have divided the Japanese archipelago between them. In any case, 
it must be allowed that direct historical evidence carries the Ainos, as such, no 
further South than the 38th parallel of latitude. There would, therefore, be no 
palpable absurdity in adhering to Motoori's view that the Ainos were a 
Northern race making their way towards milder climes, when they were met by 
the Japanese advancing from the South, and were forced back again into their 
old home. 

So far history. Its testimony is certainly rather for than against an earlier 
wide Southern extension of the Aino race. But it speaks with a voice which 
is of dubious interpretation. Will a study of the place-names help us better ? 

The conditions, under which an investigation into the place-names of Japan 
has to be made, are briefly as follow : — 

1. The great majority of the place-names in Yczo are Aino. These may 
be used as a standard, whereby to judge of the derivation of place-names in 
Japan proper. 

2. The Japanese write proper names either ideographically or phonetically. 
When a name is written ideographically, e.g. A^agasaki ^ (jj, i.e. " long cape," 
the presumption is that it is genuinely Japanese, the persons who first wrote it 
down having evidently connected a reasonable meaning with its component 
parts, just as we do with such names as New-chapel; Ox-ford. Most Japanese 
place-names are written in this ideographic manner. The phonetic method is 
what is technically termed *' Man-yo-gaiia^'^ from the fact that many of the 
poems in the Man-yo-shu anthology are thus transcribed syllable by syllable in 
Chinese square characters, used phonetically without any regard to signification. 
Speaking generally, words written in this manner are those whose sense or 
origin is not known, and which cannot be written ideographically, because not 
understood. Such are the names of the provinces of Noto (written ||| ^), Izu 
(written ^ Ji), Satsuma (written ^ ^). It is by the help of this decidedly 
cumbrous quasi-phonetic system, that the Chinese and Japanese have always 
transcribed foreign words. The presumption is in favour of the foreign origin of 
any name thus written. There are various intermediate stages between exact 
transcription, as in the three examples just quoted, and mere approximate 
adumbration of the sounds intended. Thus |^ jgj for Musashi, }j\ § for Izumo, 
can only be correctly read by those who have been specially taught how to read 

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them. Compare such English names as Abergenny spelt Abergavenny, or 
Chumly spelt Cholmondely. 

3. Two different causes tend to corrupt foreign place-names adopted by 
the Japanese. One is the aversion of the Japanese vocal organs to harsh 
sounds. The other is the fondness of the Japanese people for elegant and lucky- 
sounding Chinese characters. Such characters, when fitted to a name, will 
tend gradually to alter the pronunciation, so as to make it accord better with 
the writing. 

4. The Japanese have always had a cavalier manner of dealing with place- 
names and their orthography, which is quite unknown in Europe. Take, for 
instance, the edict issued by the Empress Gemmyo in June of the year 713. She 
ordained that good (i.e. lucky or euphonious) characters were to be afiixed to the 
names of all provinces, districts, and villages. Two centuries later, i.e. early in 
the tenth century of the Christian era, a second edict referring to this matter was 
issued. It ran as follows : ^' Use two characters for all names of districts and 
villages within the jurisdiction of the various provinces, and always select lucky 
names.'' The effect of such edicts was that the official orthography, instead of 
helping to preserve the old names intact, corrupted them more surely and more 
speedily than the inevitable process of phonetic change would have done. For, 
though the peasants of each particular locality might, regardless of ortho- 
graphy, continue to pronounce in the old way, readers at a distance and the 
educated generally would tend more and more to conform their pronunciation 
to the written standard, just as we sometimes hear English speakers pronounce 
(simply because they see them written) letters which the traditional and correct 
pronunciation of English leaves silent. But in Japan they do not stop at trifles 
like this. They go so far as to change names utterly, — both names of places 
and names of people, — at a moment's notice, and for fanciful reasons; thus 
Tsurugaoka for Shonai (the latter an old Aino name), Komagatake for Sawara- 
yama (also an Aino name), Nagano for Zenkoji, etc., etc., etc. The process 
has been going on, sometimes slowly, sometimes quickly, during the whole of 
Japanese history. The recent alteration of Yedo to Tokyo is but the most 
familiar out of many hundreds of instances of this history-destroying custom. 

5. The natural characteristics of the" country are there to guide us in 
doubtful cases. It must not, however, be forgotten that these natural charac- 
teristics have changed somewhat in the lapse of centuries in many places. 
Professor Milne and Mr. Otori Keisuke are there to tell us that what was once 
a river's mouth may now, in this portion of Japan, be many miles up the stream. 

It would thus appear that history directly encourages us to expect to find 
Aino place-names on the Main Island of Japan at least as far South as the 38th 
degree of latitude, and countenances, rather than otherwise, our continuing the 

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search still further to the South ; that the way we shall discover names to be 
Aino, even when they are not to be interpreted by the vocabulary of the modern 
Aino tongue, is by comparison with the place-names of modern Yezo ; that the 
class of names among which there is most chance of discoveries being made, is 
that which is written phonetically in Ma?i-yd'gana ] and that we should expect 
to recognize fewer Aino names in Japan than the facts would otherwise appear 
to warrant, on account of the Japanese custom of re-naming places, and of the 
corruptions caused by mispronunciation and by variations arising from the use 
of Chinese characters to write the names with. 

One or two examples from the place-names of modern Yezo will illustrate 
the manner in which Aino names become disguised a la Japonaise. There is a 
province, in the East of the island, named Tokachi^ and written with the Chinese 
characters -|- ^, which signify *' ten victories," to meaning "ten," and kachi 
meaning *' victory" in Japanese. But, on enquiry, it appears that the original 
Aino name is, not Tokachi^ but Tokapchi\ a word of unknown meaning. The 
Japanese, unable to pronounce it as it stood, might have turned it into 
Tokoftichit as Karapto (Saghalien) has been turned into Karafuto^ preserving 
the labial in an aspirated form. But the form Tokachi \\2iS preferred, because 
of the characters which were at hand to write it phonetically, and at the 
same time to suggest an auspicious idea. Another fact to be noted is, that 
whereas the Aino name denoted a river, it was enlarged by the Japanese 
so as to denote first a district, and then a whole province. Take the 
example of another district, the Yamakoshi-gori, which includes all the 
land at the head of Volcano Bay. The name sounds perfectly Japanese. 
One would imagine the characters |ll j@ j^, with which it is written, to be 
ideographic, signifying "the district of the mountain passage." On enquiry, 
however, the name turns out to have been originally, not that of a district, but of 
a stream, and to have had no connection with mountains or with passages across 
them. It is properly in Aino Yavi-kush-nai^ i.e. "the stream of the chestnut 
burs." Its origin is to be sought in the chestnut-trees which grow on the 
banks of the stream, and whose burs are carried down each season by the 
waters. Cape Shiraito again (written |^ U) is a perfectly Japanese-sounding 
name. And yet it is not Japanese, and does not mean "white thread," as it 
would seem to do from the characters. It is a mispronunciation of shiretu^ one 
of the Aino words for cape. So, when the Japanese talk of Shiraito-zaki, they 
literally say ''cape cape." 

These examples will perhaps suffice to show how deceptive are the shapes 
which Aino names adopt when pronounced by Japanese mouths and written 
with Chinese characters. They prove that even the most polished-sounding of 
Japanese place-names is not above the suspicion of being a barbarous Aino 
word in disguise. A large field is thus opened for the ingenuity of the 

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etymologist. A large field, it will perhaps be hinted, is also opened for his 
mistakes. Certainly he must walk warily, guiding himself by a study of the 
natural features of each place, and by every other scrap of information that 
may come to hand. Above all he must not make Aino studies ridiculous, as 
Celtic studies were so long made ridiculous. He must not be so much in love 
with his own subject, that he sees nought but Aino derivations everywhere, and 
does not give other possibilities a fair consideration. 

In order to guard as far as possible against arbitrary identifications, the 
present writer's first care was to make a catalogue of the chief place-names in 
contemporary Yezo. The catalogue shows the meanings of many Aino place- 
names, the sounds of others whose meaning is obscure, the degree to which the 
names have been corrupted on their passage into Japanese usage, and the 
Chinese characters selected by the Japanese to write them with. Such a cata- 
logue may be presumed to be likely to help us to learn what to expect in 
the place-names of those parts of Japan proper that have been under Aino 
influence. The catalogue is as follows. The Japanese pronunciation, though 
corrupt, is given first, because it is that which is used officially, generally found 
in maps, and most likely to survive."*^ 

Jap. Pronunc. Characters. Orig. Aino Form. Signification in Aino. 

Abashiri {d.) Ig ^ Apashiri ? 

Abuta {d.) ftt H Aputa ? 

Aibetsu (z;.) fe j5!l Aipekushnai (r.) ? 

Ainumanai (z/.) ;|fg jfl ^...Ainuomanai (r.) "The stream where the 

Ainos dwell." 

Akkeshi {v.&d.) ..#J^ Atkesh '^ Elm cove." 

Aonai ^fi „ 

Arikawa (z;.) ^ )\[ Aripet (r.) ? 

Ashoro(^.) J£^ „ ? 

Assabu(r.) )f ^ji...Asap-pet (r.) ? 

Atsushibetsu {v.) ... ? ... ? {r.) ? 

Atsuta {d.) )5 H ? ? 

Bakkai {v.) Sc i& Pakkai-shuma "The stone which carries 

on the back." The name is derived from an upright rock with another 
lying across it, thus suggesting the idea of a woman carrying a child 
on her back. 

Benkei-zaki {c) ^Jgl^ From penikkeu, "a knot 

or backbone of mountains." The name has originally nothing to do 
with Yoshitsune's henchman, Benkei. 

* The Ittlers c, d, //, i,m,p, r., and v, denote respectively that in Japanese the name is 
that of a cape, district, hill, island, mountain, province, river, or village (town). Two com- 
mas, in the third column, show that the original Aino form is identical with that used by the 
JapanesCt . 

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Jap. Pronunc. Characters. 

Betchaku (z'.) M^- 

Biratori {v.) ? 

BiroK) JglJl... 

Birofuiie {v.) ^JftS-.. 

Orig. Aino Form. Signification in Aino. 

? ? 

Piraiori *' Cliff dwelling." 

Chietomai {v.) ? 

Chikanai JJQ pj 

Chikaputoniushi (z;) ? 
Chinomi {v.) ? 

Chinshibetsu {v.) ? 

" The river we cross (?)" 


'^We pray.'' 


Chitose (z'.) ^ j8l Shikot ? — Chitose seems to be a 

mere adumbration of the original name Shikot, which was given up 
on account of its unlucky sound, recalling as it does, the words sAt\ 
*' dead ;" iofsu, '* bones." 
ChQrui (r.) ? ? ? 

Daikoku-jima (/.) ...::^ Ulllg... ? The Japanese name is a 

new one given for luck's sake, Daikoku being the God of luck. 

Ekikomanai (z;.) ...^ J|ri| ^^..-Ukikomanai (r.) "The gradually entering 


Eramachi {v.) iTH W-- ? ? 

Erimo-zaki (c.) :|^ ^ (^...Enrum nottu ** Rat promontory." So 

called from a supposed resemblance to a rat's head. 
Esan (r.) 3® lU Esani *'The place where the 

scoriae (from the volcano) descend." 
Esashi (z'. & d,) Jt H Esash Perhaps from e, *' volcanic 

scoriae," and sas/i, " to surge," ** to resound." 
Ezo Jg ^ Not known to the Ainos. 

Fuemappu 'Sf If Puimap. 

Fumbetsu ? Humpet ** The resounding river." 

Furebetsu SH jH j50 ••'^"''^P^^ ''Red river." So called 

from the red rocks near its mouth. 

Furu {v, 8cci.) !& ^ Furu *' An acclivity," "ahill." 

Furubira (z^.) !& ^ Furupira " Hill cliff." 

Futoro {v, &^.) ±i^ Pitoro '* The pebbly place." 

Fuyujima (z/.) ^ |1|^ Puishuma '* A rock with a cavern." 

Habomai (z^.) ? ? ? 

Hakodate (7'.) SI ^ Ushongesh, for Ush-un-kesh, **the lowest or 

most inland part of the bay." The Japanese name Hakodate was 

a new invention. 

Hamamashike (fl^.)--^S Amamshike ? 

Hamanaka [b.) 9[ pft Probably named by the Japanese. 

Digitized by 



Jap. Pronunc. Characters. Orig. Aino Form. Signification in Aino. 

Hidaka [p.) Q '^ Probably named by the Japanese. 

Hiyama [d.) j^ jlj Named by the Japanese. 

Homme {v.) ^ Ponne (for Ponnai)(r.)" Small stream.** 

Horobetsu [d.) I^jjlj Poropet (r.) 'VBig river.** 

Horoizumi (flf.) 1^ |l Poro erum *' Big rat.** So called on 

account of a large rock thought to resemble a rat. There is a Pon 

erum, or ** small rat *' in the neighbourhood. 

Horomombetsu [v) . . .$S ffl SO • • Poromopet '* Big tranquil ri ver. '* 

Horonai (z;.) ... IfiS j^ Poronai (r.) '* Big stream.'* 

Ifuri {/.) Hjg Ifuriso ? 

Inao-toge (A.) f^ J^ Hf^...From inaOy the Aino symbols of the gods. 

Ishikari (r., d, & p.):^ i'^ Ishikara ? 

Ishizaki (z;.) ^ (^ Named by the Japanese. 

Isoya ? Isoyake. ? 

Itaki {v.) ^;^ Itanki. ? 

Iwanai {v. & d.) ,..^ f^ ,, (r.) From Aino nat) '* stream,** preceded 

either by iW, ** rock,** or by twau {two) "sulphur.**. Both words are 

possessed in common by Japanese and Aino. 

Kabato (flf.) W ]^ ? Probably from Aino /J^/j/t?, 

a water-plant^ the Nuphar japonica. 

Kakkumi (z;.) jpj ift ? ? 

Kameda {v. & d.) ...|& ffl Probably named by the Japanese. 

Kamiiso (rf.) JcWi Perhaps Japanese. Or it may be a corruption 

of Aino Kamui sOf ''divine cascade.** 

Kamikawa (d.) Jl Jll Named by the Japanese. 

Kamoiwakka {v.) ... ? Kamuiwakka ''Divine water.** 

Kanikan-dake (;«.)... ^ ^ ^... ? ? 

Karafuto (/.) JS* >fc Karapto ? 

Kariba-yama {m.) ...)(f] j^ llj...Karimba-nupuri "Cherry-tree mountain.*' 

Kato (d.) {fj '^ Probably named by the Japanese. 

Kawanishi {d,) IPf ffi Named by the Japanese. 

Kayabe (^.) ^^ „ (z;.) "Sail water.'* So called 

from a mountain resembling the sail of a boat. 

Kayanoma (z/.) ? Kimoi " Reed bay.** 

Kiitappu (/■) ? Kitap " Reed moor.'* 

Kikonai (z/.) ^ii fi" ? From rik ?i a t\ "the high- 

rising stream (?) '* 

Kinatoshi (z*.) ? Kinatush " Reed rope.'* 

Kitami (/.) 4k H* Perhaps named by the Japanese. 

Kochikabaki (z/.) ? ? ? 

Digitized by 



Jap. Pronunc. Characters. Orig. Aino Form. Signification in Aino. 

Koitoi (zr.) 8J^ „ "Broken down by the 

Kokiblru {v.) ? From Aino pok pira^ "the lower cliflf/' the cliff 


Ko[mbu]moi (r.) ...|| ;j(^ ^...Kombumoi (<5.) "Seaweed bay." 

Kotambetsu {y) ...'g' ^^iJ-.-Kotanpet (r.) "The village river." 

Kudo {d) ;^5t ? ? 

Kumaishi (z;.) %1^ ? ? 

Kunashiri, (/.) ^^ )> Probably for Kinashiri, the 

land of reeds (or other tall grass). 
Kunnebetsu (r.) ... ? Kunnepet " Black river." 

j^"g|j^J^}(z;.,^.&/.)p[jf5 Kushru "The road traversed." 

Makaribetsu (2;.) ... ? Makarupet (r.) ? 

Maonai ? ... ? ? 

Mashike {v, ^ d) ...jf^ Meshke "Precipice." 

Matakotan ? ... „ "Winter place." A spot 

so-called from a large cave, where the Ainos used to camp in winter. 

The cave itself is called -Matabui, i.e. "winter hole." 

Matsumae {y) fefift" Matomai ? 

Matsuya-saki (<:.) ...:^g(ij... Probably named by the 


Me-akan {m) tltWil... ? ? 

Menashi (rf.) 0^ Menash {v) "East wind." 

Mitsuishi {d) H^ Nitushi "Forest-covered (?)" 

Moireushi (z/.) ? ...Moireush (^.) "Slow bay." 

Mombetsu [r. Scv.) ^ or flj^lj Mopet (r.) "Tranquil river." 

Mori {v.) ^ Probably corrupted from 

Aino moi\ "bay," into Jap. mori, "forest," by the attraction of the 

Chinese character. 
Motta (r.) ^H Motta-shiretu "Adzecape." So called on 

account of a neighbouring indentation in (he coast. 

Mukawa (r.) t^ )\\ Muka-pet ? 

Muroran (z'.) ^03 Moruran ? 

Nakagawa {d.) rft Jl[ Named by the Japanese. 

Namewaka (z/.) \^^ ? Probably from nam wak- 

ka^ " tepid water." 

Nemuro {v. &/.) ...;|ft ^ Nimoro ? 

Nigori-kawa(r.) J^ Jl[ Yu-un-pet " The river with hot 

springs." The Japanese name is a new one. 

Digitized by 



Jap. Pronunc. Characters. Orig. Aino Form. Signification in Aino. 

Niikappu {d.) ^^ Nikap "Tree bark.*' Probably 

so-called from the elms growing there. The bark of the elm is the 
material used by the Airos for their clothing. 

Nishi (flf.) W5S Probably named by the 


Noboribetsu (v.) gglj Nupuru-pet (r.) "Turbid river." 

Nokkamappu (z;.) ... ? ? ? 

Noshappu {c.) fft^j'^-Noshap ? 

Notaoi {v.) ^ H ^...Nutai ? 

Notoro-zaki (r.) ? ... Apparently a hybrid com- 

pound of Aino «(?//« (?r(?, "having a promontory," and Jap. ^^^/, "cape." 

Notsuke (flf.) ^a Notka-shiretu " Bow-string cape." So- 
called from the resemblance to a bow-string of the land forming the 
cape in question. 

Notto-zaki tlSi^- '^'^^ ^^^^ as the preceding, 

omitting oro, 

0.akanK&^.) ..Mf^M- ? ? 

Obirashibe (v.) ? ... ? ? 

Ochikabaki (z;.) ? ... ? -. ? 

Ofui-zaki {c.) ? ...Uhui-kotan " The burning place." 

Okamoi-zaki {c) ...^ jpipjl^ .A hybrid compound of Aino o, a meaningless 
prefix; Aino kamuij "god"; and Jap. ^^fc/, "cape." 

Okotsunai (z/.) ? ...Ukotnai (r.) " Confluent streams." 

Okushiri (/.) || ^ Ukushiri(for/^«^///>/)."The land opposite." 

Omoribama ? ...Omoi "Bay" ((? is expletive here 

and in Osarapet and Osatpet). 

Onishika {v.) J^Jjg 

Orito(^.) Jlf^ ? ? 

Osarubetsu (v.) ? ...Osarapet (r.) "The river of the plain." 

Osatsube {v,) Ji tL |B- Osatpet (r.) " The dry river." 

Oshamambe (z/.) ...:gSll5- » "Sole-fish." Local tradi- 

tion says that a flood in ancient days washed a sole to the top of the 
mountain at the back of the village, where its shape can still be dis- 
cerned in spring, when the snow is melting, and the vegetation has not 
yet come to hide it from view. 

Oshima (/.) Jft ^ Oshma ? 

Oshoro {d.) Jg^KF Ushoro " At the bay." 

Oshunkushi {v.) ... ? ... ? ? 

Ota {m,&v.) :A;ffl Ota-shiretu "Sandy cape." 

Otaru (z;.) )]\^ Otarunai (r.) " The stream by the sandy 


Digitized by 



Jap. Pronunc. Characters. Orig. Aino Form. Signification in Aino. 

Otobe (r. & z^.) Zj^ ^ Probably from of a />e, 

" Sandy river." 

Otoshibe (v.) ^|9J Oteslipe (;-.) ? 

Otsunai (r. & z'.) ...-^p^^.., ? ? 

Pokkirito (z;.) ? ... ? ? 

Porome-zaki {c.) ... ? ... ? ? 

Poronobori (w.) ... ? ...Poronupuri *' Big mountain." 

Ramboki {v.) ? ...Rampok " Beneath the low place." 

Rebunge {v.) jjg 3SC ^..Repunkep (r.J " The desolate place in the 

Rebunshiri (/.) jjg "X |S...Repunshiri " Island." 

Rishiri (/.) 5flJ % „ ^' High land." 

Rokke {v.) ? ? ? 

Ruiran (/«.) ? ? ? 

Rurumoppe (^.) ...©ilt „ ? 

Rusha {v.) ? „ ? 

Samani {d.) ^\fji Shamani ? 

Sannai (z/.) ? „ *' The descending stream." 

Sapporo {v.) M^Wk Satporo (r.) " Great in drought. 

Saru {d.) ^*p iM Sara *' A grass-grown plain." 

Sarubutsu (v.) ? Saraput " The mouth of the plain." 

Saruru (v.) ? ? ? 

Sashumbetsu (v.) ... ? Sashunpet ** The surging river." 

Sawaki(z'.) jf ^ ? ? 

Sawara-yama {m.) ") 

(orKoma-ga- [-^^IR llj...Sarat-nupuri ? 

take) 3 

Shakotan {d.) ^ ^ Sak-kotan '* The summer place." So 

called, because the Aino fishermen used to collect b^ches-de-mer and 
sea-ears there in summer. 

Shakubetsu(z'.;;^(orp)g!)...Sakpet '* The dry river." 

Shari $^ ^ A local pronunciation of Sara (see Saru). 

Shibetsu {v, & rf.) fi| j^(or J5!j)Shipet (r.) ''The main river'* (i.e. not 

an affluent). 

Shibuchari jjjj^ jg Shipichara ? 

Shikabe {v.)., S^ llR Shikebe (r.) "Luggage river." The 

local explanation of the name is that the river carries, as it were on its 
back, — i.e. is overtowered by, — the neighbouring volcano Sawara-dake. 

Shikotan(/.) J^^lfe:!?- (orjjgfl-) „ ''Chief land," i.e. probably 

in contradistinction to some small islets in the neighbourhood. 

Shikunoppe (z/.) ...^ 5f |j5"Shipunoppe (r.) ? 

Digitized by 



Jap. Pronunc. Characters. Orig. Aino Form. Signification in Aino. 

Shikyu {v.) ...ft^ (or ^)...Shikiu " The place of rushes.*' 

Shima[ko]maki (z^O-KlS ft ...Shimakmaki ? 

Shimamaki (d.) Kli ft Shumamap ? 

Shiinushu (/.) ^^ ? ? 

Shineko-zaki (<:.) ...^^ 11^... Perhaps a corruption of 

Aino shiretUy " cape," with Jap. saki^ *' cape/' suffixed. 

Shinshiru (/.) ^j^ ? ? 

Shiokubi [m.&Lc.)^-fi ? 

Shiraito-zaki [c.) ...^f^fgj^.., A corruption of Aino 5///- 

retu^ ''cape/' with Jap. ^^/f/, ''cape/* suffixed. 
Shirakami {c) |& W From Aino shirara kamut\ 

" the god of the tide, or waves (?) " 
Shiranuka (^.) & |^ • From Ainu shirara ika, 

" the waves crossing," it being a place where the waves beat wildly 

on the shore (?). 
Shiraoi {v. & d.) ...j^ ^ „ From s/iira /, "the place 

whence gadflies issue forth." 
Shiretoko (c.) ^ JSR n From Aino shiretn\hu\ 

"cape," literally " the land's nose." 
Shiretoko-zaki (^.) ^ JISR tt Same as the preceding, 

with Jap. ^^/t/, "cape," suffixed. 

Shiribeshi (r. &/.)^5S Shiripet "The mighty, orswift, river." 

Shiriuchi (z;.) ^ft Shiruochi ? 

Shitsukari {y) ^% Shittukari ? 

Shizunai (flf.) 5? ft Shutnai (r.) "The stream beside [the 

hills, or the sea]." 

Slionai ? Sonai (r.) " Cascade river." 

Shiunkotsu ^^-^W ...Shumunkut "The belt of grease.'' So 

called from the foam or froth on a neighbouring stream. 

SorachI (rf.) ? ? ? 

Soya (z;. & ^.) ^# d Some say it was formerly 

Toya, which would mean " lake land." 
Suttsu (z;. & ^.) ...^S Shuptu (r.) .? 

Takashima (^.) ..Jlt^ Tukarisho ? 

Tarumai (z^.)...:^|^ (or^lf).Taromai ? 

Teine-yama (;«.) ... ? Teinai-nupuri ? 

Teshio (r., d. &/.)-%^ Teseu ? 

Teure-shima (/.) ...^5^.. ? 

Tobetsu (c.) '^jglj Topet (r.) "Lake river/' i.e. "the 

river flowing out of the lake." 

Tobitomai {v) ? ? ? 

Digitized by 



Jap. Pronunc. Characters. Orig. Aino Form. Signification in Aino. 

Tobui {d.) '^^ ? Apparently ** holes in the 


Tobutsu (z;.) ? Toput "The mouth of the lake." 

Todohokke (z;.) ...fl|J ?ife|| ... ? ? 

Toitanai (z;.) ? „ (r) "The stream where the 

fields are cultivated." So called from the cultivation in the neigh- 

Tokachi (r., ^. &/.)•+ 1^ Tokapchi ? 

Tokari {v.) ? Tokkarimoi, from tokikara^ the name of a small 

fish formerly abundant there, and moi^ "harbour" or "bay." 

Tokoro %^ „ ? 

Tomakomai (z/) *^ jJ>^...Tomakonai (r.) " The stream issuing from 

the back of the lake." 

Tomamai [d) "^H^f '^ ^ 

Toshibetsu (r.) ^ j50 Tushpet "Rope river." This name, 

which is now applied to the whole river, originally denoted but a small 
stretch of it, where a rope was stretched across by the inhabitants of 
the village of Futoro, to prevent those of the opposite village of Seta- 
nai from poaching on their salmon fisheries. 

Tsugaru [d) ^g ? 

Uembetsu {r) jf jg (or J:) % Wenpet "Bad river." 

Urakawa (z/. and d) fjli )\\ ...Uraka ? 

Uruppu (/.) 1^% Urup ? 

UryaK) MH ? 

Usu (d) :ff Ijc Ush [oro] " The head of the bay." It 

is a general name for the stretch of land at the head of Volcano Bay. 
Usubetsu (z;.) p jjlj Ushpet (r.) "The river at the head of 

the bay." 
Usujiri (z/.) El K Ush-shiri " The land at the head of 

the bay." 
Usu-no-yama (/«.) ? Ushon-nupuri "The mountain having a 

depression." So called from its curious shape. 
Utasutsu [v.&id,) ...^|g Otashut " Sandy beach." 

Wakasa-nobori (;;/.) ? Wakkasa-nupuri Said by the Ainos tobe de- 
rived from wakka sao, " to flee the waters," because their ancestors 
fled to this mountain from a tidal wave. 

Wakonai (z^.) ? n (^0 ? 

Wakunai (v.) ? ,, (r.) ? 

Waonai (za) ? „ {r.) ? 

Washibetsu JfjJlJ Washpet ? 

Yakoshi ((:.) ^U ? ? 

Digitized by 



Jap. Pronunc. Characters. Orig. Aino Form. Signification in Aino. 

Yaniakoshi {d.) [Ij jg Yamkushnai "The stream of chestnut 

burs." So called from the burs borne down on its waters. 

? Yam ni-kotan *' Chestnut-tree village." 

Yambetsu [v.) jL ^Ij Yampet {r.) ''Cool river." 

Yangeshiri (/.) j^ JJ „ "The island near the 

Yoichi {v, Bed.) -^^ iff lyochi "The perplexing place," 

from iyot^ " perplexing weather," e.g. driving rain or snow, and /, 

Yokotsu-dake (w.) . . .3^ •}$: ^. . . ? ? 

Yubari ^ 3S Yupara ? 

Yubutsu {a. &L d.) ...|| j® Iput ? 

Yurappu j&^%' . Yurap " Hot waters descending." 

So called from the hot springs in the neighbourhood. 

The above catalogue may teach us several things. First we learn from 
it the method followed by the Ainos in their geographical nomenclature, which 
is simple enough. They describe the river, village, or cape, as the case may 
be, by some striking feature ; thus " Red River," " the Stream Issuing from the 
Back of the Lake," "the Mouth of the Lake," "the Place of Rushes," "the 
Desolate Place in the Sea," "the Burning Place" (because near to a volcano), 
"the Stream by the Sandy Road," "Adze Cape," "Rat Cape," "Hill Cliff," 
"Cliff Dwelling," "the Land at the Head of the Bay," "the Mountain having a 
Depression," "the Place whence Gadflies issue forth." Occasionally some 
local event is commemorated, or supposed to be commemorated, by a name, as in 
Toshibetsu and Shakotan (see s. v.)."**" Secondly, there is a large number of 
names not to be explained in the present state of our knowledge. Some of 
them have perhaps been corrupted beyond recognition. Some are possibly 
pure but antiquated Aino, no longer to be understood in the absence of any 
literary tradition. Why should not some have descended from the aborigines 
who preceded the Ainos, the latter adopting them as the Japanese have adopted 
Aino names? 

But the most interesting fact elucidated, — at least the most interesting fact 
from our special point of view, — is the nature of the corruptions introduced by 
Japanese mispronunciation and carelessness, and by the use of the Chinese 
characters. What strikes us most is the way in which the Japanese have intro- 
duced vowels, and at the same time lengthened the original names and made 
them heavier. Iput becomes Yubutsu, Mopet becomes Mombctsu, Sakpet be- 
comes Shakubetsu, Nikap becomes Niikappu. The distinction between long 

* The presenl wriler's impression is ilial most of ihese local sloiies, accouiUing for names of 
places, are not nmch to be trusted. As in other parts of the world, the story may often have 
sprun|» from the name, not the name from the story. 


Digitized by 



and short o^ which does not exist in Aino, is arbitrarily introduced. Tlius 
Aino ota^ '* sand," becomes indifferently Ota, Ota, Uta and Uda. The vowel 
a is changed to / and //, as Ishikari for Ishkara, Saru for Sara. The consonants n 
and ;;/ interchange, as in Mitsuishi for Nitushi. P is turned into b or into 
A, according as it is medial or initial, as in Furubira for Furupira, Horobetsu 
for Poropet. More rarely it is replaced by the favourite Japanese consonant, /t-, 
as in Shikunoppe for Sliipunoppc, and Kokibiru for Pokpira. There is a ten- 
dency (though it does not come out very clearly in the catalogue) to japo- 
iiise Aino diphthongs by the insertion of an epenthetic consonant. The 
beginning of such a process is illustrated by the use of the character ^ (mori) 
to write the latter half of the name Kombumoi. As a proof that Aino moi^ "bay," 
has become Japanese inori^ may be adduced such instances as Omoribama, the 
name of one side of the sandy strip connecting Hakodate with the mainland, 
where there never is nor could be a wood {jnori)^ as there ought to be if the 
true etymology were in the Japanese pronunciation and orthography of the name. 
This leads us to suspect that others of the many Omori's and Aomori's in 
Japan are simply Aino mot\ *'bay," with the prefix o. The meaning of this 
prefix is not clear. The Ainos themselves can give no account of it. But it is 
found in a number of Aino names, e.g. 0-sarapet, 0-satpet (Jap. Osarubetsu, 

The desire to foist a Japanese etymology onto the Aino names is very 
apparent, as where a final iva has been added to Muka and Uraka, to turn them 
into the Japanese-sounding names Mukawa and Urakawa. Such a tendency to 
assimilate foreign words to the national speech doubtless exists in all countries. 
The transformation of the French sign-board ".1 la Rose des Qitatre Saisons^^ 
into ** The Rose of the Quarter Sessions" is an instance that has often been 
quoted. What gives this tendency special force in Japan is the necessity, real 
or supposed, of fitting every name with Chinese characters, and with elegant- 
looking Chinese characters. Thus, it is easier to write Urakawa in a manner 
easy to read, than it is so to write Uraka. This consideration explains why, for 
instance, the Aino Ukik-oma-nai should have become Japanese Eki-koma-nai. 
Eki"^ ** profit," is a much more auspicious character than the homonymous g uhi^ 
which signifies *' sorrowful." The alternate characters J^ glj, now substituted 
for the older jj jS jjlj to write the name Uembetsu, afford a striking instance of 
the avoidance of a disagreeble-looking orthography. The way in which 
Tokoro, Uruppu, Usu, and Yurappu are written, testifies still more strongly 
to the presence of a love for auspicious characters. Penikkcu is a word 
untranscribable in characters as it stands. But japonise it into Benkei and 
the difficulty vanishes, to say nothing of the apparent prop given to the 
story of Yoshitsune's visit to Yezo, by the fact of the name of his 
celebrated henchman Benkei thus figuring in the geography of the island. 
Hence, too, such things as the dro[)ping of the m in Karimba^ which becomes 

Digitized by 



Kariba, Tlie original Aino Karimba-nupuri meant '* cherry-tree mountain." 
But Kariba-yama^ ** hunting-ground mountain/' sounds just as likely a name, 
and can be written with ease. Thus, too, Aino shuma^ "slone," slides almost 
unconsciously into Japanese shlma^ " island," ihe character for writing which 
is known to all. Occasionally the original Aino word is susceptible of being 
written with characters exactly as it stands. Thus Furupira or Furubira, written 
■^ ^. Few persons would suspect that this name, which appears to signify 
"the old flat," really means "hill (Aino ////'//), cliff (Aino />/>^)." From it, 
and others like it, we infer that the word hira^ which occurs in so many 
Japanese names, may often signify, not "flat," but "cliff'." 

Occasionally the Japanese orthography contents itself with a simple adum- 
bration of the original Aino name. Of this the characters ^i§, used to write 
the name Shiribcshi, are a typical example. At other times it is the Japanese 
pronunciation, as well as the orthography, that recalls the Aino original but 
vaguely. Thus Chitosc is but a distant echo of Shikot ; Takashima hardly leads 
us back to Tukarisho. In some cases the Japanese have gone a step further 
still, and have substituted a completely new name for the old one, as Hakodate 
for Ushongesh, Koma-ga-take for Sawara-dake (Sarat-nupuri in Aino), Nigori- 
kawa for Yu-unpet. 

How completely unreliable are the Chinese characters, as guides to the ety- 
mology of place-names, may be gathered from such instances as Otaru, meaning 
in Aino "sandy road," but transcribed by the characters \\\ ffj, i.e. "small cask " 
((7-/^r;/); Noboribetsu g glj, i.e. "going up different," representing the Aino 
Nupuru-pet, "turbid river"; Teshio ^ ^, i.e. "heaven salt," representing the 
Aino Teseu, a name of doubtful meaning ; Shiribeshi ^ ^\, where the Aino Shiri- 
pet, i.e. "mighty (or swift) river "is, as already mentioned, indicated rather than 
transcribed by characters which omit the syllable be {pet) altogether, and insert 
a final .y/z/ which does not exist in the original; Suttsu ^^, *' the metropolis 
of longevity," representing the Aino Shuptu, a name of doubtful meaning; 
Utasutsu ^ % %, " the poetry metropolis of longevity," representing the 
Aino Ota-shut, "Sandy beach;" Koitoi ^ fal, i.e. " the voice asking," repre- 
senting Aino words signifying " broken down by the waves." These absurd 
examples might be multiplied without end. For, until recently, it was con- 
sidered necessary to force all Aino names into Chinese straight waist- 
coats, as the Japanese names had been forced before them. A work 
preserved in the library of the Hakodate Government Office, and entitled 
Tohoktii Yochtshi\ is typical of the course that was pursued for centuries. It 
contains lists of double Chinese characters chosen by a learned official from 
the Confucian Classics, from Chwang Tzu, from the standard Chinese historicsi 
etc., for application to the place-names of Kunashiri, Itorup, and other places 
in the North. The usual plan was for three such sets of names to be presented 

Digitized by 



for inspection to the governor, who selected in each case those which seemed 
to him most suitable. 

It will be noticed that many of the names in the catalogue denote rivers in 
the original Aino, but villages in Japanese. Indeed, the transfer of names from 
rivers to villages may almost be said to constitute a rule. The Ainos are very 
particular to name even the smallest streams. 'I'he Japanese, on the other 
hand, frequently leave a river without any proper appellation, simply designat- 
ing it, at various points of its course, as "the river of such and such a village." 
In Aino a similar custom prevails with regard to mountains, which are com- 
monly known as *' the mountain from which such and such a river flows," 
whereas the Japanese custom is to give each mountain a name. Many old 
names must have fallen between these two stools. It is fortunate for our pre- 
sent purpose that the plan of transferring river-names to villages has preserved 
a certain number which would otherwise have perished. 

The following list of words, partly obtained from the catalogue given above, 
partly consisting of common Aino designations for features of the landscape, 
such as are likely to occur in the names of places, is offered as a provisional 
key whereby to test the Aino origin of place-names in Japan proper. The 
compiler does not indeed wish to be understood as holding that all names 
partly formed from the following words are necessarily Aino, but only that 
they are (so to speak) suspicious characters, and that of the number a certain 
percentage is probably Aino : — 



Japanese Pronunciation 












atsu, atchi 

be (pe, q.v) 






chi, tsu 

chi (e.g. in Tokap- 

chi, Shiriuchi) 




volcanic matter 









nose, cape 

cto, itsu, izu, ito 



fure, furu (?) 


acclivity, hill 



a deep pool in a 


hatta, hata, bata 


sound, noise 


Digitized by 











ika, iku 

to cross, across 

ika, iku, iki. 

iga, ka 


symbols of the gods 

inao, inu, ina 

I, inad5, 

ino, ino 


a shanty near a stream, used 
by fishermen 





iyot, iyochi 

perplexing weather, (e.g. 
driving rain, mist) 

yoichi, yoshi 


a ledge of rocks 



skin, bark 










kane, kuni 


bare, desolate 

ke, ge . 


innermost part, navel, bot- 
tom, top 

keshi, kishi 

ki I 


grass, tall herbs, rushes 

ki, kina 


inland, the mountains 




koi, koe 





a kind of seaweed 







kone, kuni 


chestnut bur 

koshi, kuchi, 



to cross, to go along by 

koshi, kuchi, 



back, inland 


mashke ") 
meslike J 





mat a 


distant mountains, moun- 
tain outline 




mo, mon 


bay, anchorage 



late, slow 










nai, mai, nak 
nashi, me 

:i, nagi, 

nari, na, 


tepid, cool 

namu, nama, 




ni, mi 



nita, nitta 

Digitized by 





Japanese Pronunciation. 


to pray. 






a promontory ending in a 















an apparently meaningless 


0, 0, ao 

. to issue forth 


to go in, to be in 



to be, in, having 




ota, ota, oda, oda, uta, uda 


the lower course of a river 

hanada, hanata, hanawa, 


to carry on the back 






dirty stagnant water, also 




the upper course of a river 

hinata, hinada, hina, hinaga 


a knot or backbone of 





betsu, be, he (?), boe 



hira, bira 




pit, pitclii 

flint, shingle, hard stones 

fuclii, fuji, hiji, buchi 





great, big 







fuyu, fue 


(river-) mouth 

butsu, futsu, fuchi, fuji, moto 


to die 




ran, ram 

ran, rap 

to descend 





repun (mosliiri) 

a distant island 










shaku, saku, shaka, saka (?) 

san, sap 

to descend 



tall grass, a plain covered 

with grass 

saru, sara (?) 

Digitized by 





Japanese Pronunciation. 


to surge, to resound 




satsu, sata (?), sa 



shiki, saki 


main, chief 












country, world 

shiri, shiro 


swift, mighly 



grease, foam 




shima, jima 


side, neighbourhood, beach, 

suttsu, sutsu 



tone, tani 





pool, lake 

to, to, do, tsu, toku 


at, in, to 

ta, da 


to cut 

ta, da 


earth, land 



to break down, to crumble 



name of a small fish 

tokari, togari 





foot or mouth of a lake 



abode, dwelling 



to dwell 

toru, tori 


bark, rope 



to burn (intrans.) 






to join, to come together 

okochi, ogochi 


the junction of two streams 

okotsunai, kotsunagi, ochi-ai 

ush [oro] 




to be, having, thick with 

ushi, ishi, yoshi, uchi, uji 





land (as opposed to sea) 








un (on) 

to be, there is, having 

un, on 






uen, men 








hot spring 

yu, yo - 




Digitized by 



In order to see how this key worked in practice, the place-names of the 
Prefecture of Aomori, the northern-most Prefecture of Japan, have been tried 
by it. These place-names number over three thousand. The result is that 
from five to ten per cent, prove to be of Aino origin. (The uncertainty of the 
percentage is caused by the large number of doubtful cases.) The following 
are examples of the Aino place-names occurring in the Prefecture of Aomori: — 

Aino-mura, ;Jg ff ;^, i.e. the Aino village. 

Arenai, ^ pj, (conf. Arikawa in Yezo). 

Aomori, ^ ^, from Aino o moiy bay. 

Dobutsu, jg j^, from Aino to-put^ mouth of the lake. 

Dekijima, [ft 34^lll^> ixom Aino ieke-shuma^ the hand-shaped rock. 

Fujishima, ^Hl^, from K\viO pitch i-shuma^ pebbly stones. 

Fuyube, ^|JJ, from Aino////-/^[/], the river with holes in it or caverns near it. 

Harabetsu, il^JSlJ, from Kino para pei, broad river. 

Hiranai, 2|i pj, from K\\\o pira-nai^ the stream by the cliff. 

Hirosaki, JJ/^ flj, from Aino pira-nai^ the same as the preceding. This is a good 
example of the gradual japonizaiion of names by means of the Chinese 
character : first nai is pronounced mai ox mae and written fljj, and then 
the reading mae is changed to saki^ the character x^ being susceptible 

of both pronunciations. 

Horonai, f^ pj, from K\\\o poro nai, big river. 

Inuochise, ;f^ |g }!g(. from Aino iniin-chise, a temporary shanty on a river's 
bank, used by fishermen. The manner in which this name is written, 
viz., ;f^ %Sil. '-c- ** ^'»c current into which dogs fall," is a good example 
of the straits to which people were put in their endeavour to find Chinese 
characters wherewith to write the alien Aino names. 

Kanehira, ^ ^, from Aino kene-pira, the cliff with alder-trees. 

Kaneyama, ^ jlj, from Aino kene^ alder, -f Jap. Varna, mountain. There arc 
no minerals in the district to warrant the name Kaneyama ^ (Ij, i.e, 
" metal mountain," as it stands in the Chinese character. 

Kotsunagi, ilN-f^, from Aino tikot-nai^ the confluence of two streams. 

Kuniyoshi, @ ^, from Aino kene-ushy covered with alder-trees. 

Mennai, ijjg pj, from Aino iven nai^ bad stream. 

Metoki, @ I^, from Aino metot, distant mountains. 

Omori, ;fc ^, from Aino o-moi^ bay [o expletive). 

Otawara, ^ ^, from Aino oia para^ broad with sand (conf. such names in Yezo 
as Sat'porOy meaning ** great in drought.") 

Shimamori, ^ ^, from Aino shntna-vioi, rocky bay. 

Shiriuchi, fl pj, from Aino Shiruochi. There is a Shiruochi in Yezo. The 
signification is obscure. 

{.y/z/r/jj, mighty land ^ 4-T d k' 

or . I cane '' 

shino ri ya^ very high land^ * 

Digitized by 



Tanabe, Q ^ ^, from Aino tanne pet^ long river. 

Tobinai, ^R pj, from Aino tope-nai\ the river lined by maple-trees. 

Tokaichi, + B iff, from Aino Tokapchi, There is a Tokapchi in Yezo. 
The signification is obscure. The characters -p Q llT, which suggest 
that the place is so called because a fair is held there every tenth day, 
are absurd, as the hamlet is a very small one, and situated in a rough, 
hilly district, where no such frequent fairs would ever be held. 

Tosawa, ]p ^, from Aino tOy pond, -f Jap. sawa^ stream. The original 
Aino name was probably To-nat\ of which the Japanese kept the sound 
of the first half, and the signification of the second. 

Uta, ^ B3i from Aino otay sand. 

Wakimoto, JJJ ;2fC, from Aino 7vakka'pui\_u'\y the mouth of the water, i.e. of the 
lagoon hard by. 

Yamaguchi, jlj p, from A\v\o yam-kush chestnut burs. 

Yokonai, ;^ j^, from Kmo yuk-naij deer stream. 

For the sake of those readers who are not familiar with Chinese characters, 
and who are therefore unable to appreciate at a glance the frequent ludicrous- 
ness of the received Japanese derivations of place-names, as represented by these 
characters, another table is here appended : — 

Received Japanese Derivation, 

as shown in the characters aino derivation proposed 
Place Names. with which the Names are by the present Writer. 


Aino-mura, ;Hl 5f ;|^.. The village of mutual moors. The Aino village. 

Atsumi, fig ^ Moistening beautiful Elm-tree. 

Fuyube, ^ 135 Winter tribe The river with holes in it. 

Hina, JIj ^ (avowedly phonetic.) The upper course of the 


Iki, ^ (U (avowedly phonetic.) [The island] across [the 


^zu, ^ 2L (avowedly phonetic.) The promontory. 

Izumo, {f] ^ Issuing clouds The bay near the pro- 

Kiji, :;^ ^ Tree compassion Grassy. 

Kuniyoshi, ^ ^ Country lucky Covered with alder-trees. 

Mennai, ^ p9 Inside permission Bad stream. 

Naki, >g ;?f; Name tree Stream. 

Nita, H ^ Two numerous Forest. 

Noto, ||g g (avowedly phonetic.) The cape. 

Nabira, ^ ^ Name flat The clif! by the stream. 

Otobe, 2i ^ The next tribe Sandy river. 

Sabe, ^ lip (avowedly phonetic.) Dry river. 


Digitized by 


Received Japanese Derivation, 


Place Names. with which the Names are by the present Writer. 


Sakunami, if^ 3^ Making in a row Summer stream. 

Shirao, ^ |5 White man The place whence gadflies 


Sara, ^ g (avowedly phonetic) The grassy plain. 

Tanabe, gg ^ T^U Rice-field name tribe Long river. 

Tonami, j£ 3& Hares in a row The stream from the lake. 

Tsushima, 1^ ,B| Opposite horses The distant [island]. 

Uda, ^ P^ (avowedly phonetic) Sand. 

Yokonai, g| pj Crossways inside Deer stream. 

It is only necessary to read first through the Japanese, and then through the 
Aino list, to see that common-sense is with the latter, and wild and grotesque 
improbability with the former. Imagine a peasant community seriously giving 
to its village such a name as '* Inside Permission," *' Name Flat,*' '' Rice-field 
Name Tribe," or *' Hares in a Row ! " It is impossible to imagine any set of 
people being so flighty, least of all the prosaic peasantry of the Far East. But 
that the Ainos should have called those same localities by names signifying 
respectively ** Bad (i.e. dangerous) River," ** the Cliff by the Stream," ** Long 
River," and '* the Stream from the Lake," is perfectly natural. Such names, 
taken from the physical features of the place, and especially from the peculi- 
arities of its rivers, are in accordance with the geographical terminology of the 
Yezo Ainos at the present day. They are, indeed, such as are found among all 
races who have had to do with the naming of a new country. That the Japa- 
nese, during their gradual encroachment on Aino-land, should have appropriated 
many Aino names together ivith the soil itself, is equally natural. Indeed, the 
phenomenon is still taking place in Yezo, where we can go and watch it, where 
we can see the simple Aino names in the very act of transformation into 
fantastic shapes, under the double action of Japanese mispronunciation and of the 
application of the Chinese character. From the very beginning, the Japanese 
who first used Aino names were no purists. Very few of them even spoke 
Aino. They pronounced the alien names as best they could, moulding them 
unconsciously into harmony with the phonetic laws of their own language. 
Then, at last, came the learned men, the priests. Knowing nothing of 
Aino, and despising it even if they had known it, these men completed and 
fixed the work of change, by dressing up the Japanese mispronunciations in the 
garb of the Chinese character, the universal medium of w-ritten intercourse. 
Sometimes, indeed, they avowed themselves non-plused, and transcribed the 
new names phonetically as best they could. In such cases the foreign origin of 
the names in question is still less open to doubt, 

Digitized by 



To the modern investigator, the names written phonetically and the names 
written grotesquely are the two most valuable classes of Japanese place-names; 
for they are those in which the alien element is most easily detected. There 
are doubtless relics of Aino speech even in the third and largest class of Japa- 
nese place-names, those, viz., which are pronounced and written as if purely 
Japanese, such as Nagasaki ^ jl^, i.e. " Long Cape;" Tanaka \Q »^, *' Amidst 
the Rice-fields;'* Takayama |^ ill, *' High Mountain," etc., etc., etc. The 
already quoted names Yamakoshi and Shiraito, which, while seeming to be purely 
Japanese words signifying "Across the Mountains " and *' White Threads," can 
be proved to be simply corruptions of the Aino Yam-kush-nai, i.e. ''the Stream 
of Chestnut Burs," and Shiretu, i.e. "Cape," are there to warn us that even the 
most apparently genuine Japanese place-names may be but Aino names in 
disguise. Nor do Yamakoshi and Shiraito stand in Yezo as the solitary 
examples of so complete a metamorphosis. But, though we are able to trace 
the true Aino etymology of such names when they occur in Yezo, it is mostly 
impossible to do so when they occur in Japan proper, there being no Ainos 
now left in Japan proper, from whose lips we might hear the original pronun- 
ciation of the names which have become naturalized as Japanese. All we can 
and must do is to remember that, as such cases occur at the present day in 
Yezo, where their origin can be traced, they probably also occur in Japan proper 
where their origin cannot be traced. 

To return to the place-names of the Prefecture of Aomori. Next to the un- 
doubtedly Aino origin of most of those quoted on p. 64, and the strong presump- 
tion in favour of a similar origin for the others, perhaps the most striking result 
of the investigation here briefly described, is to show how small is the Aino ele- 
ment that has survived in the geographical nomenclature of even that portion 
of the Main Island where the Ainos lived longest, and from which they were 
driven most recently. Evidently the causes producing change work quickly in 
this country. The inference to be drawn from the five to ten per cent, of 
Aino terminology in the Prefecture of Aomori is that, if there remain so few 
Aino names in a province which the Ainos only quitted six or seven 
centuries ago, there will be far fewer a little further to the South, in districts 
whence they were expelled a thousand years ago. The discovery of but from 
five to ten. per cent, genuine Aino names in the extreme north of the Main 
Island justifies us in expecting to find, say, but five per mil in Central Japan. 
Very few indeed can be expected in Southern Japan. To put the case in 
a slightly different form, an extremely small number of presumably Aino names 
should be held sufficient to prove the original presence of Ainos in any portion 
of the country, unless strong evidence can be brought to the contrary. But 
there is no such evidence ; for history, so far as it lights us back, shows us the 
Ainos ever further South and further West, as we grope our way towards more 
ancient times. History is therefore on our side. 

Digitized by 



The study of this question, in order to be carried out thoroughly, should 
evidently embrace all the place-names of Japan. Of these the new should 
be carefully sifted from the old, and the old alone be kept for further considera- 
tion. Many hundreds of place-names, some of which designated villages now 
no longer existing, are preserved in the pages of old historical and topographi- 
cal works. For those still current, the inhabitants of each locality should be 
consulted on the subject of pronunciation, as the Chinese characters used in 
writing proper names are very frequently of uncertain reading, so that a 
reference to maps or geographical dictionaries is insufficient. Local documents 
should be looked into for the traditional account of the origin and changes of 
each name. Local conditions should be studied by one to whom Aino and 
archaic Japanese are alike familiar, so as to elicit the probability, in each 
individual case, of a Japanese or an Aino etymology of the name. Archaeology 
too should be persuaded, if possible, to speak with a more certain voice than 

It is evidently impossible to carry out at present, and WMth the sole view of 
proving or disproving the theory of the Aino occupation of Japan, a programme 
involving such an expenditure of time, labour, and even money. Failing a 
systematic and thorough sifting of this sort, which might perhaps include other 
objects, e.g. the ascertaining of the Korean element in South-Western Japan, 
and of the influence of Buddhism on the geographical nomenclature of the 
entire country, the present writer would offer the following stray samples for 
the consideration of Orientalists*: — 

I.— DEWA AND GSHU.— (Excepting the Prefecture of Aomori.) 
Sakunami, ^ 3fe» from tAino sak 7iat\ ''summer stream.*' 
Kemanai, ^ Jt^ ft ■\ from Aino naiy "stream," preceded by other words of 
Sabinai, fe J:t ft f uncertain origin. Rainai may mean "the death 
Rainai, ^ ft ^ stream." 
Inuboemori, j^^^, from Aino inao-moi^ " divine symbol bay." 


Koshi, j^, the old general designation of this section of the country, seems to 
be from Aino kush, "to traverse," or "across," because it was across 
the mountains to those coming from the South and East. 

Noto, fj6 ^, from Aino Jiottu, "promontory," the province of Noto forming 
the chief promontory that juts into the Sea of Japan. 

• For convenience of reference, the sixly-eiglu provinces of Japan, previous to the recent 
re-naming and subdivisions of many of ihem, are grouped together in clusters going from North 
to South. 

t Instead of '* from Aino," it would be more strictly correct, but less practically convenient, 
to say "from the ancient Aino word corresponding to the modern *' In our un- 
avoidable ignorance of the older forms of the Aino language, the best we can do is to take its 
contemporary form as the standard. 

Digitized by 



Tonai, ^ j^, from Aino to-nai, 'Make stream.'* 

Kitashiro, 4K f^* ^^^^^ Aino ki ta shin, '' the land where they cut grass."(?) 

Nabira, ^ Zp, from Aino nai-pira, *' stream cliff." 

Karlba, Xfl ^i from Aino karhnba, *' cherry-tree." 

Inunai, -^^ ^, from Aino inao-nai, *' the stream of the divine symbols." 

Hira, JtH» f^^m Wwo pi ra, ** cliff." 

Koiji, ^ 0, from Aino it(?/ /^/, ** crumbled by the waves." 

Sara, ^S« ^^^m Aino ^^r^z, '* a grassy plain." 

Futsu, ^ 'j^, from Aino/>«/, " river-mouth." 

Betsubata, glj »IH, from Aino pet-hattara, *' a pool in a river." 

Kita-ebisu, ^^ "> referring to the Ebisu or Barbarians (i.e. Ainos) who 

Ebisu-minato, ^ f§*J dwelt there. 


Iwashiro, jg f^, from Aino iwa-shiri, *' the land of rocks." 
Otagawa, -j^ \Q jl|, from Aino ota, ** sand," and Jap. kawa, '' river." 
Kimita, g gg, from Aino kirn ta, '* to the mountains." 
To, ^, from Aino to, ''pond,'' "lake." 

Inao, % %y from Aino inao, " divine symbols." 
Nauchi, ^ j^, from Aino nai-ush, " having streams." 

K^w' % Jl from Aino nai, " stream." 
Naki, ig:;fCj ' 

Satsumori, ;|iL ^, from Aino ^^Z /«^/", " dry bay." 

Mona, ^^i from Aino mo nai, "quiet stream." 

Sakuna, f^ ^, from Aino sak nai, " dry stream." 

Naito, pj m, from Aino nai-to, " stream pond." 

Uraga, fjfi ^, from Aino uraka (as in Yezo). Signification obscure. 


Atsumi, fg ^, from Aino ^/-;//, " elm-tree." 
Tokari, ^ ^, from Aino tokari (as in Yezo). 


Izu, jjt" 2, from Aino ^///, " nose " or cape," the province of Izu forming a 

cape or promontory. 
Yamanashi, jl] ^, from Aino^^;;/-«^/, "chestnut stream." 
Hina, J:[j ^, from Aino penata, " the upper waters of a river." 


Urakawa, fjli Jlj, from Aino Uraka (as in Yezo). Signification obscure. 

Kappu, :gj ^, from Aino ? 

Nanai, ig j^, from Aino nam nai, "cool stream." 

Digitized by 



Nomi, gg ;g., from Aino nomiy ** to pray." 

Mutsubira, J^ 2p, from Aino />ira, ''cliff," preceded by mutsti a word of un- 
certain derivation, but apparently Aino (conf. the extreme Northern 
province of that name). 

Tokari, Jp J/f, from Aino iokari (as in Yczo). Signification obscure. 

Togari, ^ f^, from Aino tokari (as in Yezo). Do. Do. 

Ochibe, % |5{, from Aino otoshibe (as in Yezo). Do. Do. f 



Shima, ]^ ^, from Aino shutnay " stones," "rocks." 

Iga, ^ 3Ki f**o*^ Aino ikaj iku^ " across," q.d. "across the mountains." If this 
be correct, the Iga-goe, or Iga Pass from the Kyoto district into Iga, 
would be one of the many examples in Japan of pleonastic names, i.e. 
of such as consist of an Aino term followed by a Japanese term of the 
same meaning. There are Iga's in Rikuzen, Mikawa, Kawachi, and 
Iwami, written with the same phonetic characters jJJ*S5. 

Yamato, ::^ ft, from Aino yam40y "chestnut pond," i.e. "the pond sur- 
rounded by chestnut trees." 

Ki, la, from Aino A7, "tall grass." 

Yamashiro, |1] f^, from A\\\o yain-shiriy "the land of chestnut-trees." 

Otobe, 2«IB» ivon\ Aino ^/^-/^[/], "sandy river." 

Ilarafuto, HS:iC. ^^rom Aino harafnto. Signification uncertain. 

Watarai, J!^ ^, from Aino waiara^ "rocks." 

Ud?., ^ p£, from Aino ota, " sand." 

Chikauchi, 5^ p), from Aino chi ika ush^ " the bay we traverse." [Conf. such 
Aino words as chiramandepy literally "the thing we hunt," i.e. the 
bear ; chironnup, literally "the thing we kill," i.e. the fox.] 

Chikatsuyu, ?£ S, from Aino chi ika toi^ "the land wc traverse." 

Itsu or Ito, ^%, from Aino etu, "" nose," "cape." 

Sabe, ^llp* f^o"^ Aino sat pet ^ "dry river." 

Tonami, J£ 3fe» fro"^ Aino to-nai, "lake stream." 



Izumo, {1} g, from Aino etu-moi, " the bay of the cape." 

Domoto, ^;2t^. from Aino tO'put\ji\, "the mouth of the lake." 

Tobira, ^ Z|S, from Aino to-pira^ "lake cliff." 

Tono, ^ 5f, from Aino to-nup^ " lake moor." 

Kiuchi, ';^ j^, from Aino kiush, "grass plentiful." 

Ushiro, ^, from Aino ushoro, " having a bay." 

Nita, ZL ^, from Aino nitai, " forest." 


Digitized by 


Inao, IQJ^, from Aino inaOj "divine symbols." 
Chikabira, 5£2p, from Aino chi ika pira, *' the cliff we traverse," or chikap 

pira, '' bird cliff." 
Hatabe, A EB llRi from Aino hattara-pet^ *' the river with a deep pool in it." 
Attoshi, U ^J, from Aino at-titsh^ " elm-bark," '* stuff made out of elm-bark." 
To, ^ ^, from Aino to, '' pool," '' pond." 
Yatabe, ^ H |IB, from K\\\q ya-ta-pet, " the inland river." 
Nomi, 7} ill from Aino nomi, '* to pray." 
Tsunami, 'j$ Jg, from Aino to-nai\ '* lake stream." 


T6chi-no-ike, + ifi ^, from Aino to-ush, " having a lake/' -f Jap. ike, 

"lake," added pleonastically.'^ 
Henai, ^ pj, from Aino nai, " stream," preceded by he, a word of obscure 

Wakafuji, ^-^, from Aino wakka-putlii], " the mouth of the water/' 
Tsune, ^ ^, from Aino to-nai, *' lake stream." 

Kiuchi, /(^ 1^, from Aino ki-ush, "grass plentiful." 

I " I ^ s' ^^^^ Aino inao, " divine symbols." 

Honami, ||[ JjJ, from Aino/^/« nai, "small stream." 
Wakana (2) ^ ^, from Aino wakka nai, "stream of water." 
Wakaichi, ^- iff, from Aino wakka-ush, " watery," " water plentiful." 
Tokubuchi, ^i^, from Aino to-pitchi, "pebbles in the lake." 
Yanami, A 3fe. from Kxno ya-nai, "land stream." 
Togari, ^ g, from Aino tokari (as in Yezo). 
Dome, 5^ ^, from Aino to-nai, " lake stream." 

Nisemoto, H Ml^* ivom Aino nisei-put, " the mouth of the valley." 
Tsunaki, j^ ^ :^^, from Aino to-Jiai, " lake stream." 
Nagoshi, i^g j^, from Aino nai-kush, " the crossing of the stream." 
Kiuji, if,]^, from Aino ki-ush, "grass plentiful." 
Atchi, J^ i(^, from Aino ^7/, " elm-tree." 
Tobe, % IfP, from Aino to-pet, " lake river.'* 
Hina, j-fc^, from Aawo penat a, "the head waters of a stream." 
Shirao, ^ ;f|, from Aino shirau i, " the place whence gadflies issue forth" 

(as in Yezo). 
Kushira, ^ g, from Aino kushiro (as in Yezo). 
Hirauchi, Zp pj, from Aino pira-us/i, "cliffs abundant." 
Kiji, /f;*, from Aino ki-ush, "grass plentiful." 

Digitized by 




Iki, ^ JK, from Aino tkuj ika^ '' cross," q.d. the island over the way across 

the sea. 
Tsushima, ^ J||, from Aino tiiima^ ** far*' q.d. the far-off island. 
Watara, ^ g, from Aino ivatara^ ** rocks.*' 
Inuboe, ^ g^, from inao-pet^ '* the river of the divine symbols." 

Instead of taking provinces in groups, we may take like-sounding names in 
groups, and cannot fail to be struck by the Aino complexion of numbers of 
these names, a fact which is emphasized by the phonetic way in which many of 
them are written, showing that they were not understood e\'en by those Japa- 
nese who first transcribed them. We will quote but a few examples. 

Thus there are Hinas^ Hinada'Sy Hanada's, and like-sounding names 
scattered all over Japan. But they are not scattered without method. Hinata 
B |pj, in the district of Hatara in the province of Musashi, is on the head-waters 
of the River Tone ; and on the lower course of the same stream, in the Kita- 
Katsushika district there is a Hanawa :J£ 1^. On the upper course of the 
Tamagawa in Musashi, in the district of Chichibu, there is another Hinata 
|pj, and yet a third in the same district, a long way up the River Sumida. 
On the lower course of two streams in Musashi there are Hafiadas ;|^ 0, and 
Hanamata's )J^ X- '" Mikawa, similarly, we find a Hina ^ on the upper 
course, and a Hanata H^ Q on the lower course, of the River Nukada. In 
Mino there is a Htnaga ^ on the head-waters of the River Kiso. In Bitchu 
there is a Hina i^ on the head-waters of the Kawabe-gawa. In Hitachi, Shimo- 
tsuke, Kawachi, and Echigo there are Hanada^s on the lower course of streams. 
Even as far South as Chikugo, in the Island of Kyushu, there is a mountain 
called Hinata-kami-iwa-yama |^] jptl 3^ [!]• which is the source of the River 
Yabe. Now what does all this (taken in conjunction with the general meaning- 
lessness of the Japanese names as they stand) go to prove ? Why! simply 
that the common Aino designations />^;/^/^, *' the upper course of a river," and 
panata^ *'the lower course of a river," have survived to the present day in the 
place-names under consideration, Aino/ changing, as usual, into Japanese //. 
On any other hypothesis, the invariable position of the Hina'Sy Hinata s^ and 
Hinadas^ near the head-waters of rivers, and of the Hanada's^ Hanawa* s^ 
and Hanamata's near their mouths, would be little short of a miracle. Ise, 
Suruga, Etchu, Iwashiro, almost every province that we turn to, repeats the 
phenomenon and confirms the proof. 

Similarly wide-spread are the traces of the Aino word inao. We find 
Inao's 1^ J^ in Shimosa and in Harima, Inago^s 1^^ in Musashi and in Shinano, 
Inaho IS ^ in Mimasaka, Inado ^ ;ft in Buzen, Inanobc |S if ^ (probably for 
inaO'pet) in Hitachi, Inunai ^ f^ in Etchu, Inuboe ;^ ^ and Inuboemori ^ gjj 
^ in Tsushima, Ino ^ J^ in Izumo and Bungo, Inokoshi Jff ^ ^ and J|f ;^ i^ 

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^ in two parts of Owari, etc., etc., etc. Note the incongruousness of the Chi- 
nese characters, and of the Japanese etymology intended to be represented 
thereby, in many of the above names. What place would ever, except by 
lunatics, have been named " Rice-Tail," "Inside a Dog,'* "Boar's Child Stone ?" 
Many things were managed quaintly in Japan in olden days ; but there was 
nothing to come up to this. 

The various Fuji's (spelt y *P in iafia, not y sr) serve to preserve the Aino 
pitchi *' pebbles," *' a rubble of stones ;'' e.g. Fujinami Uj jft (probably from 
K\\\o pitchi nai "the pebbly stream *') in Musashi and in Noto, Fujisawa^ ^ 
{Amo pilc/ti 4- Jap. sawa) in eleven of the Northern and Central provinces. Tlie 
Fuyii's and Fues, which have no raison d'etre in Japanese, appear to be referable 
to the Aino word ////, *' hole," which, as we have already seen, has given some 
place-names to modern Yezo. Thus we find Fuyu ^ in Kishu, Fiiyube ^ ^ 
(from Aino pui-pet, i.e. *' a river with holes") in Mutsu, Fujima"^^ {P^^i- 
shuma "the rock with a hole in it") in Musashi. 

Of the many Kama's in various parts of the country, not a few, it is 
natural to suppose, are the Aino word katna, "a ledge of rocks," rather than 
the Japanese karna^ "a sickle," or "furnace." Such a name as Kamabe ^ jft 
in Mino, for instance, is meaningless in Japanese. But if we refer it to the 
ts\\\o kama-pet^^^ \\\^ river near the ledge of rocks," it becomes intelligible. 
The same is the case with Kamaishi ^ ^ in Rikuchu, which, when traced to the 
Aino kama-ush^ "rocks plentiful," is shown to be a designation appropriate to 
the scenery of the place. 

Such words ending in nami as Tonatni ijlg ^ and J^ 3fe »" Etchu and in 
Yamashiro, Tanavti BJ 3& and :J'5' |^ in Kishu and in Kawachi, Ilonavii^x J^ 
in Chikuzen, and numerous others, are strongly suggestive of the Aino word 
7tai "stream," the ;// having apparently been inserted epenthetically in defer- 
ence to the Japanese dislike of diphthongs, a dislike which elsewhere has 
similarly caused the transformation of the same 7iai into naki\ 7iagt\ nariy and 
na, Nai itself has survived unaltered in many cases, especially in the Northern 
provinces, w^hich were most recently under Aino influence, e.g. Shonai J[£ j^, 
Innai'^f^, Inunai -j^f^. The termination be, mostly written phonetically 
with the character ||5, preserves for us the Aino pe or pet^ " river," as nai^ 
"stream," is preserved in the nami's and the naki's. Thus we have Tanabe, 
E9 £ "S^ ie. tanne pet, "the long river " ; Otobe %^y\^, ota pet, " the sandy 
river"; Sabe ^^,\.fi, sat pet, "the dry river." In none of these has the 
Japanese name, as it stands, any signification. Indeed, the transcriptions of Sabe 
and Otobe are avowedly phonetic only. To, the Aino for " pond," pool," or 
"lake," survives in scores of names, as may be seen by glancing over the 
preceding lists. So does the Aino//>^, " cliff," under the forms hira (initial) 
and bira (final). Commemorative, in another manner, of Aino influence are the 


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various names beginning with the consonant r, such as Rokku >\ fJfc in Mikawa, 
(seemingly from the Aino rokkei), ''a hindslip," Ronden fji^ in Awa, Rainai 
^^ in Rikuchu. Naturally such names, whose initial r makes them uncouth 
to Japanese ears, arc chiefly confined to the Northern provinces, where phonetic 
change has not yet had time to complete its work of assimilation. There is reason 
to suppose that, in other parts of the country, r has been softened to k, and to 
various other letters more agreeable to the Japanese organs- of speech. But on 
this point it is impossible to speak as yet with any degree of certainty. What 
can be said with certainty is that names, as to whose Aino origin there can 
scarcely be a question, may be traced right through the Main Island of Japan and 
on into Shikoku and Kyubhu. 'Ihcy are fairly abundant even in the extreme 
Southern province of Osumi, and across the sea in the Islands of Iki and of 
Tsushima. As a corollary to this, many of the surnames borne by Japanese 
families must be of Aino origin. For most Japanese surnames have been 
borrowed from the names of the villages in which the families designated by 
them first dwelt. If therefore such place-names as Tanabe, Ilinata, Nait5, 
Nagi, etc., were originally Aino, the surnames derived from them are Aino 

Surely the inference to be drawn from such names, which are but a few^ 
picked up on the surface, is that the Ainos were truly the predecessors of the 
Japanese all over the Archipelago. The dawn of history shows them to us living 
far to the South and West of their present haunts ; and ever since then, century 
by century, we see them retreating eastwards and northwards, as steadily as 
the American Indian has retreated westwards under the pressure of the colonists 
from Europe. The last few years have witnessed the extermination of the deer, 
on W'hose flesh the Ainos counted partly for their subsistence. The fisheries 
are passing into Japanese hands. The Ainos care little for tilling the soil. 
They have no capacity for trade. Decade by decade their numbers decrease. 
The half-breeds die out. Evidently the Japanese Government cannot, with the 
best of intentions, preserve the race much longer from extinction. The Ainos 
must without delay be subjected to all the necessary scientific tests. Their 
language must be analyzed, their folk-lore registered ; for soon there will be 
nothing left. The majority of the Ainos are already bi-lingual, that is to say, that 
they speak Japanese besides their mother-tongue. The younger ones prefer the 
Japanese language and Japanese ways to their ancestral language and ways. 

By some European travellers this japouization of the present genera- 
tion, and the probable speedy extinction of the race, are mourned over. The 
present writer cannot share these regrets. The Ainos had better opportunities 
than fell to the lot of many other races. They were sturdier physically than 
their Japanese neighbours. From those neighbours they might have learnt the 
arts of civilization. As a matter of fact, such scraps of civilization as they now 

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possess, are of Japanese origin. They eat with Japanese chopslicks, Ihey offer 
Japanese rice-beer to their gods, they do their cutting and chopping with 
blades bought from the Japanese, they shoot with Japanese guns, ride Japa- 
nese horses, dress partly in Japanese stuffs. But so little have they profited by 
the opportunities offered to them during the last thousand or two thousand 
years, that there is no longer room for them in the world. The son of the 
greatest living Aino chief is glad to brush the boots of an American family in 
Sapporo. The Aino race is now no more than a " curio'* to the philologist and 
to the ethnologist. It has no future, because it has no root in the past. The 
impression teft on the mind after a sojourn among the Ainos is that of a pro- 
found melancholy. The existence of this race has been as aimless, as fruitless, 
as is the perpetual dashing of the breakers on the shore of Horobetsu. It 
leaves behind it nothing save a few names. 


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Section I. — The Alphabet. 

I. — In writing ihe Ainu language wiili ihc Roman letter*?, the following system has 
been adopted : — 


As a in the word " father." 

As e in the word ** benefit." 

As ; in the word "rav/ne." 

As in the word " m^te." 

As // in the word *'rwle." 

As ai in the word '' ^/sle " or / in '' /ce." 

As ey in the word '* th<?j'." 







In these combinations each vowel must be distinctly pronounced. 

As b in English. No sentence can commence with this letter; but, preceded 
by another word, the letter p is often changed into b. 

c This letter is never heard excepting in the combination ch. When used, it is 

always soft like ch in church. 

d I>, like by is never heard at the beginning of a sentence, but / often be- 

comes ^in composition. 

f The letter/ resembles the true labial in sound, it being softer than the Eng- 

lish labio-dental /. It never occurs excepting followed by the vowel //. 
F, is used very sparingly indeed, and principally in words of Japanese 

g As^in^ood. No sentence commences with the letter ^, but i becomes ^ 

in composition. 

* In introducing this Grammar of the Ainu Language, I desire to express my obligations to 
Mr. p. H. Chamberlaip for many useful suggestions in regard to arrangement. — ^J. Batchelof. 

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As h in /iouse. There is a tendency in some villages, particularly in those 
which are more immediately under Japanese influence, to change the letter 
h intoy" before //. 

The only word in which anything like the sound of the letter j occurs is 
viachiy wife. In this word there is a tendency to change ch into/. 

Y All pronounced as in English. 

t I 

w J 

1 ) 

^ ;- Not heard in Ainu. 

X ) 

z Something like the sound of the letter z is heard in the word pensai (penzai). 

The Ainu assert, however, i\\2ii pensai is an old Japanese word for *'junk.". 
It was the name given to the junks which used to come from ]Matsumai 
laden with rice for the Japanese military and fishing stations round the 
coast of Yczo. 

2. — It will be seen, from the above, that no sonant letter can begin a sentence, and 
that, in composition only, surds are sometimes changed into sonants. 
These changes are as follows : — 

K becomes g. 
P becomes b. 
T becomes d. 

3. — None of the consonants b, c, d, f, g, r, w, or y ever ends a word ; but k, m, 
n, p, s, t, as well as the combinations ch and sh, often do. The letters j and z are not 
here mentioned, because they are not now used. 

4. — Double consonants must always be pronounced, as in Italian and Japanese ; 
thus : — 

Ota; Sand Otta; In. 

Rama; Spirit, soul Ramma; Always. 

Shina ; To lace up Shinna ; A difference. 

Section 2. — Pronunciation and Letter-Changes. 

5. — Though the Ainu language, as a whole, is spoken with considerable uniformity 
throughout the Island of Yezo, many words are variously pronounced in different 
villages and districts. As as example of this, notice the word erufn, a rat : — 

In the Saru district erum is pronounced eremu. 

In the Ishkari ^rem. 

In the Usu erdm. 

At Poropet-kotan (village) erum. 

At Shiraoi erum. 

At Endrum endrum. 

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The original word was probably cndrum^ which is preserved in the name of the 
village so called, and which means *' the place of rats." 

5-^. — There is a great tendency all over the counlry to confound the simple letter 
** s " with the combination " sh." Indeed it is, in many cases, very difficult to know 
which is really meant ; and often either way of speaking is considered equally correct, 
though in some cases the distinction is very sharp and important. 

6. — The tonic accent is slight and unimportant, and has therefore not been noted 
in this work. The half-singing intonation, which is specially noticeable in the pronun- 
ciation of the women, can hardly be termed a tonic accent, neither has it anything in 
common with the " tones " used by the Chinese. There is also no marked distinction 
between long and short vowels. 

7. — The manner in which letter-changes take place is as follows : — 

A^ becomes ;;/ before p, b, or m ; thus ; — 

Tambe for tan pe or ianbe, this thing. 
Tam-matkachi, for ia7i matkachi, this girl. 

Ra^ ro, and ru become 11 before n and t ; thus : — 
Kara, to make ; kan nangoro, will make. 
Ku goro, my ; ku koiinishpa, my master. 
An guru, a person : Aji gun 11c, it is a person. 
Oara, entirely; Oattuye, to cut through. 

Roy become / before chi and t, thus : — 

Ku goro chisei becomes /•// kof chis€i\ my house. 
Ku goro toi becomes ku kof ioi\ my garden. 

Note also the following : — 

Heikaftara for heikachi utara, lads. 
jSlaikat'ldva for matkachi utara, girls. 
Sec Nos, 2^y 26, 

8. — When one word ending wiih a vowel is immediately followed by another com- 
mencing with a vowel, die final vowel of the first word is in some cases dropped ; e.g. 

Oya moshir un guru^ for oya moshiri un guru, a foreigner. 
Moshir eh ilia y for moshiri ebitta, every person. 
Utar ohitUiy for uttara obitla, all people. 

8-<z. — By some persons the final *' n " in pon and wen is changed into " i "; thus : — 

Poi seldy for pon seta, a little dog. 
Wei ainUy for wen ainu, a bad man, 

Some go so far as to drop the " n," of pon altogether : e.g. 
Po ehikapy for pon chikap, a little bird. 

This mode of talking should be carefully avoided, for it is only a careless way of 

9. — It is not absolutely necessary 10 make any of the above letter-changes. All 
words may, if preferred, be pronounced in full. 

10. — When it is desired to give special clearness to the pronunciation of a noun or 

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adjective ending in a vowel, such final vowel may be reduplicated, preceded by the con- 
sonant h ; thus : — 


Ishi or i:5liihi, a bird's tail. 

Niniaki or nimakihi, a tooth. 

Putu or putuhu, a lid; the mouth of a river. 

Sara or saraha, an animal's lail. 

Shiki or shikihi, an eye. 

To or toho, a day ; a lake. 


Kunne or kunnehe, dark ; black. 
Piiika or pirikaha, good. 
Poro or poroho, greet. 
Relara or retaraha, white. 
Ri or rihi, sometimes riri, high. 

II.— -There are some cjises in which it is absolutely necessary to reduplicate the 
final vowel. Thus. 

Hochihi, a sum ; must never be pronounced AocAi. 

Topaha, a crowd fopa. 

Weni-kurihi, a rain-cloud zveni-iuri. 

Section 3.— Specimens of Ainu Words borrowed from Japanese. 

12.— The Ainu have adopted a number of Japanese words, most of which are 
affected by the peculiarities of pronunciation which distinguish the northern dialects of 
Japanese. Especially to be noted is the tendency to nasalization : e.g. 


Kami, paper. Kam^i. 

Kogane, gold. Kowgane. 

Kosode, a short sleeved garment. Koso//de. 

Kugi, a nail. Kuvgi. 

Tabako, tobacco. Tawbako. 

13. — The following is a list of some of the words borrowed from the Japanese 
language : — 

Amam, garden produce {Probably from Emo, a potato. {Jap, imo.) 

the Japanese word omamma, boiled Endo, a well. {Jap, ido,) 

rice. Iro, colour. 

Anluki, a kind of bean. {Jap, azuki.) Ita, a board. 

Aunki, fan. {Jap, bgi; the ancient Iwa, a rock. 

Japanese pronunciation was a/ugi.) Kama, a kettle. {Jcip' cl boiler,) 

Aya, the grains in wood. Kambi, paper. {Jap, kami.) 

Cha, tea. Kamui, a god. {Jap. kami.) 

Chikunai, a fine. {Jap* tsukunoti, to Kanazuchi, a hammer. 

indemnify.) Kane or kani, metal, money. 

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Karakane, copper. 

Kasa, a hat. 

Kongane, gold. {Jap, kogane.) 

Kosonde, a short-sleeved upper garment. 
{jfap, kosode.) 

Kusuri, medicine. 

Mame, beans. 

Mane, to imitate. 

i\Iaraplo, or maratto, a feast. (Appar- 
ently from the Japanese ivordmarbdOy 
which was anciently pronounced 
viarehitOy a guest.) 

Menoko, a woman. 

Noko, a saw. {Jap, nokogiri.) 

Nomi, an awl. 

Ondori, to dance. (Jap. odori.) 

Otlena, a chief. {Jap, otona, an adult.) 

Pakari, a measure. {Jap. hakari,) 

Pensai, a large junk. 

Pi-uchi, aflintand steel. {JapJii-uchi.) 

Puri» a custom. 

Rakko, a seal. 

14. — The following are a few samples 
are here italicised are Japanese : — 

-^w^w-chikap, a sparrow. 
Chikuni-/^/^>f^, a wooden idol. 
EndO'Voi^LTi, Toky5 (Yedo). 
Jl/ama-pOy a step-child. 
Niwatori'Chik^p, domestic fowls. 
Vou-beko, a calf. 
Von-umma, a colt. 
AS'//////f;-habo, a mother-in-law. 
ShiutO'Vnichi, a falher-in-law, 
Shumz-potoke, a stone idol. 

Rosoku, a candle. 

Saimon, a priest. (Jap, ritual.) 

Sake, rice-beer. 

Sakne, last ; as sakne pa, last year. 
(Jap. saku.) 

Sarampa, goodbye. {Probably Japan- 
ese saraba.) 

Sendo, a boatman. 

Shirokane, silver. 

Sosh, a book. {Jap. sbshi,) 

Tama, a ball. 

Tambako, tobacco. {Jap, tabako). 

Teppo, a gun. 

Tokkui, a companion. {Jap. togi.) 

Tomari, an anchorage. {Jap, a stop- 
ping place.) 

Tunchi, a interpreter. {Jap. tstlji.) 

Tura, a row, a line. {Jap. tsura.) 

Umma, a horse. {Jap. uma.) 

Yakata, a house. (/// Jap. this word 
denotes a palace.) 

Yo, business. {Jap. yd.) 

of Hybrid Compounds. The words which 

7V;-j-kamui, a priest. 

7(3;/^-nishpa, a governor. (/;/ some 
places the word Tono is used to indi- 
cate government offices.) 

Tono-Tu and 7<?w<?-para-ru, the Mikado's 

J ji//-etaye, to collect taxes. 

J'(?-an, to have an engagement, to have 



Section i. — The Gender of Nouns. 

15. — Nouns, in the Ainu language, undergo no change to indicate gender; e.g. 

Chikap, a bird {cock or hen). 
Chironnup, a dog fox or vixen. 
Erum, a rat {male or female), 
Jvuru, a person {man or woman). 

Po, a child {boy or girl). 
Seta, a dog or bitch. 
Umma, a horse or mare {Jap.), 
Yuk, a deer {buck or doe) , 

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1 6. — Though generally unexpressed, gender is, however, sometimes indicated by 
the use of special masculine and feminine words. The following are of frequent 
occurence : — 


Acha, uncle. 

Ainu, man, Ainu. 

Akihi, younger brother. 

Apka, buck {deer.) 

Chisei kon nishpa, householder. 

Ekashi, ancestor {grandfather.) 

Hambe, father. 

Heikachi, lad. 

Hoku, husband. 

lyapo, father. 

Karaku, cousin. 

Kiyanne-po, elder son. 

Kokowe, son-in-law. 

Michi, father. 

Okkaibo, boy, young man {sou.) 

Ona, father {rarer than michi.) 

Pinne, male. 

Poneune po, younger son. 

Shiuk, he-bear. 

Shiuto-michi, father-in-law. 

Sontak, little boy. 

Yupo, elder brother. 


Unarabe, aunt. 

Shiwentep, woman. 

Mataki, younger sister. 

IMomambe, doe {deer.) 

Chisei koro kalkimat, landlady. 

Huchi, ancestress {grandmolhen.) 

Totto, mother. 

IMalkachi, girl. 

Machi, wife. 

^latkaraku, cousin. 

Kiyanne mat, elder daughter. 

Koshimat, daughter-in-law. 

Habo, mother. 

INIatnepo, daughter, girl. 

Unu, mother {rarer than habo.) 

Elaine, female. 

Poneune mat, younger daughter. 

Kuchan, she-bear. 

Shiuto-habo, mother- in-law. 

Opere, little girl. 

Sapo, elder sister. 

17. — When it is absolutely necessary to express the sex of animals, this can be done 
by prefixing//;/;/^, male, or viaine, female, to the word : e.g. 


Pinne chep, a male fish. 
Pinne chikoikip, a male animal. 
Pinne kuitop, a gander. 
Pinne kusuwep, a cock pigeon. 
Pinne reep, a dog. 
Pinne ruop, a male squirrel. 


Matne chep, a female fish. 

Matne chikoikip, a female animal. 

Matne kuitop, a goose. 

Matne kusuwep, a hen pigeon. 

^latne reep, a bitch. 

Llatne ruop, a female squirrel. 

18. — In expressing the masculine gender of human beings, however, the word pinne 
must never be used. Okkai and okkaiyo should take its place ; thus : — 

Okkai poho, a litde boy ; a son. 
Okkaibo, a young man. 

19. — It should be carefully noted that the word okkaibo is not applied to lads between 
the ages of twelve and eighteen. During that period of hfe, lads are called heikachi qx 
heikafiara. From eighteen to thirty, young men are called okkaibo or okkaiyo ; after 
the age of thirty a pan is an ainti, that is, " a man," 

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Section 2. — ^The Number of Nouns. 

20. — ^The number of a noun is generally, like ils gender, left unexpressed ; e.g. 

Aiai, a baby or babies. Kuma, a pole or poles. ^ 

Chikuni, a tree or trees. Nimaki, a tooth or teeth. 

Chip, a boat or boats. Nochiu, a star or stars. 

Humbe, a whale or whales. Nok, an egg or eggs. -^ 

Kamui, a god or gods. Paskuru, a crow or crows. 

21. — When it is essential to draw attention to the fact that there is but one of a 
thing, the numeral s^inc, " one," may be used ; e.g. 

Shine amam-chikap, one sparrow ; a sparrow. 

Shine chiramantep, one bear; a bear. 

Shine itangi, one cup ; a cup. 

Shine ilunnap, one ant ; an ant. 

Shine Shisam, one Japanese ; a Japanese. 

22. — It will be seen by the above examples that, when the numeral shi/ie is so used, 
it corresponds, more or less, to the indefinite article a or an, (See No, Sy.) 

23. — Plurality may, when necessary, be expressed by adding the word uian\ usually 
pronounced uiare or uiara^ to nouns ; e.g. 


Chacha, an old man. Chacha utara, old men. 

Hautur'un guru, a messenger. Hautur' un utara, messengers. 

Nishpa, a master. Nishpa utara, masters. 

Uitek guru, a servant. Uitek utara, servants. 

Utarapa, a lord. Utarapa utara, lords. 

24. — Notice, in such words as hautttr un guru and uilek gnru^ the dropping of the 
word gurti^ person, which the use of utariy uiare or utara renders superfluous. 

25. — In the two words heikachi, lad ; and matkachi, girl ; the final chi is contracted 
into / before the suffix utara, the u of which is dropped ; thus : — 


Heikachi, a lad. Heikat'tara, lads. 

]\Iatkachi, a girl. Matkat'tara, girls. (^S*^^ No. 7.) 

26. — The full way of writing inatkachi is matnekachi, Matnekachi is probably short 
for matne-heikachi. Heikachi appears to have been the ancient word for child, whether 
boy or girl. In fact, even now, this word is sometimes applied to young people of either 
sex, particularly by the Ainu of Usu Kotan and the neighbouring district. 

i^. — Though there is no absolute rule against the use of utari, utare, or utara after 
the names of the lower animals, it is considered best to avoid doing so. In their case, 
therefore, as in that of inanimate objects, plurality is left to be inferred from the context 
or from the verb. 

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28. — Diversity of subjects may be expressed by prefixing the word usa to nouns; 

thus : — 

Usa-katpak, various or many sins, 

Usa-seta, various or many dogs. 

Usa-shiyeye, various or many diseases. 

Usa-tasbum, various or many sicknesses. 

Usa-wenburi, a variety of bad habits. 

Usa-wenkatcham, many evil intents or dispositions. 

Section 3. — The Cases of Nouns. 

29. — In the Ainu language there are no cases properly so called. What is termed 
case in Latin and other Aryan languages is either left to be gathered from the context, or 
is denoted by the use of a separate particle, as in English. Tlie particles are, however, 
generally placed after, instead of before, the words they govern, and most of them are 
therefore postpositions, though some are used as prepositions. These particles are treated 
of in chapters IX. and X. 

A few examples are here given, as illustrations of how case may be inferred from 

the context : — 

C Anekempo shirutu, the snail crawls. 
NoM. < Tonin honoyanoya wa arapa, the worm goes wriggling along. 
(Kikiri kotoise, the insects swarm. 

( Furu poki ta, at the foot of the hill. 
Poss. < Ni sempirike, the shade of trees. 
( Nonno hura, the scent of flowers. 

C Otop erashke, to clip the hair. 


Obj. < Wose-kamui kik, he struck the howling dog. 
( Yaoshkep raige, he killed a spider. 

Section 4. — Abstract Nouns. 

30. — What in English are termed "abstract nouns" can scarcely be said to exist in 
Ainu as simple words. Equivalents to them can, however, easily be formed by suffixing 
the particle /', or by adding the word ambe to certain adjectives and verbs; e.g 


Nupeki, bright. Nupeki'i or ambe, brightness. 

Oupeka, upright. Oupeka'i or ambe, uprightness. 

Pirika, good. Pirika'i or ambe, goodness. 

Retara, white. Retara'i or ambe, whiteness. 

Wen, bad. Wen'i or ambe, badness. 

31. — The word ambe is itself a compound noun formed from auy "to be," and pe, 
**a thing." Great care must, therefore, be exercised in using it with adjectives to express 
abstract nouns ; iov rciara ambe may, and often does, mean " a white thing," and not 
"whiteness," and oupeka ambe "an upright person," and not "uprightness." The 
following sentences will serve to illustrate this : — 

Tokap chup kiai nupeki ambe anakne, shi no kotom ne ruwe ne; 
The brighiness of the sun's reflection is indeed beautiful. 
Tan nonno anakne retar' ambe ne; This flower is while. 

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32. — ^The following are examples of abstract nouns made by suffixing i to verbs : — 


Eshokoro, to believe. Eshokor'i, belief. 

Itak, to speak. Itak'i speech. 

Okere, to finish. Okere'i, the finish. 

Uwepekennu, to inquire. Uwepekennu'i, inquiry. 

Yainu, to think. Yainu'i, thought. 

Ye, to say. Ye'i, a saying. 

33. — Care must always be taken to pronounce the particle t distinctly ; in fact, it 
might be better to place the letter h before the /"; — thus, iiaky tiakhi] yainu^ yainuhi. 
Compare No, 10, 

31. — Once or twice we have heard yainuhu for yai'nuhi. The latter appears to be 
the correct way of speaking; at any rate, it is the form now in most common use. 

Section 5. — Compound Nouns. 

35. — Compound nouns are very extensively used in Ainu, and maybe formed almost 
at will ; e.g. 

36. — Sometimes two substantives are compounded together; as: — 

ch7;j;*b\r!!i'!!'r.".:'.:?.'l".':!:, } An..«-ci.ii^p, . «par,.«. 

Hu^l'SnT'L:::::;::;::::::::::::::: } K™»i-i.™, -.«na=,. 
K;;«ir.".!'...:::::::;:::::::::::::::::::]->'»-p'. »'''■• 

37. — Sometimes a verb and a noun are compounded ; e.g. 

Ilaita, to miss a mark ) „ •* t 1 

Kuru; a person ] Ha.ta-guru, a.fool. 

Ma, to roast ) tvt 1 

Kam, flesh } U^-^^^m, roast meat. 

Shukup, to grow ) ^u i 

Kuru, a person j Shukup-guru, a young person. 

Uhuye, to burn ) ,.1 • i 

Nupuri. a mountain j Uhuye-nupun, a volcano. 

38.— Note especially the compounds formed by means oi peoi be, "a thing", which 
is often contracted into the single letter/; e.g. 


E, to eat. Ep, food. 

Ese, to answer. Esep, an answer. 

Kotchane, to mediate. Kotchanep, a mediator. 

IMunnuye, to sweep. Munnuyep, a broom. 

Nuye, to write. Nuyep, a pen. 

Ukoheraye, to resemble. Ukoherayep, things resembling one an- 

Digitized by 



39- — Passive verbs are almost always thus treated when helping to make compound 
substantives, and hardly ever take the i mentioned in numbers 30 and 32 ; e.g. 


A-e, to be eaten. A-ep, a thing to be eaten ; food. 

A-eshokoro, to be believed. A-eshokorope, a thing believed. 

A-yainu, to be thought. A-yainup, a thought, 

A-ye, to be said. A-yep, a thing spoken. 

40. — It sometimes makes no perceptible difference to the sense whether the verb 
used to form the compound be active or passive, as may be seen by comparing ep and 
a-ep, both of which mean food. 

41. — Some nouns may also be made by adding the letter/ to adjectives ; e.g. 


Pase, heavy. Pasep, a heavy thing. 

Pirika, good. Pirikap, a good thing. 

Poro, large. Porop, a large thing. 

42. — Some verbs, by taking the word kalu immediately after them, are thereby con- 
verted into nouns ; e.g. 


An, to be. An katu, existence. 

Ilak, to speak. Itak katu, language. 

Shik-o, to open the eyes. Shik-o katu, birth. 

43. — ^The word ^j/// means, ** shape," ** form,'* ** mode," "way." Thus, an katu 
might be translated by "mode of being", tiak kaiu by "way of speaking," ami shik-o 
kaiu by "manner of birth.'* 

44. — When a verb is immediately followed by the compound word ambe, the two 
together should, in some cases, be translated by a single noun. Take, for instance, the 
following examples : — 


An, to be. An ambe, entity. 

Itak, to speak. Itak ambe, a saying. 

Shik-o, to open the eyes. Shik-o ambe, a birth (lit. an opening 0/ 

the eyes). 

Section 6. — Proper Nouns. 

45. — The following are a few examples of the way in which proper nouns are 
formed : — 

46. — Names of the Gods, 

(These are given according to dieir order of dignity and importance). 
Tokap chup Kamui, the sun god ; ihe sun itself; (lit. Day luminary Deity), 
Kunne chup Kamui, the moon god ; the moon; (lit. Black luminary Deity), 
Wakka-ush Kamui, the goddess of water; (lit. \Vatcry Deity), 
Chiwash ekot mat, the goddess of the mouths of rivers; (lit. The female 
possessor of the places where fresh and salt waters mingle). 

Digitized by 



Kamui huchi, the goddess of fire; (lit. /he Deily grandmother or old ivoinan.) 
Shi-acha Kamui, a sea-god ; not worshipped ; (lit. Wild Uncle Deily). 
Mo-acha Kamui, a sea-god ; worshipped ; (lit. Quiet uncle Deity), 
Shi-acha and nio-acha arc together termed /iV/> un Kamuiy ihe gods of the sea. 

47. — N'ames 0/ Men, 

Ekash oka Ainu, the heir of the An- 
Hawe riri Ainu, the eloquent man. 
Nupeki san Ainu, the sender down of light. 

48. — Names of Women, 

Ikayup, the quiver. 

Konru san, the sender down of ice. 

Shine ne mat, the belle. 

Shuke mat, the female cook. 

Parapita Ainu, the mouth loosener. 
Ramu an Ainu, the wise man, 
Yuk no uk Ainu, the deer catcher. 

Usapte, the prolific one. 

Yai koreka, the selfish one. 

Yai tura mat, the female misanthrope. 

{Jap. Horobetsu.) 
{yap. Sapporo.) 

49. — Names 0/ Places, 

Erem not or nottu, the rat cape. {Cape Erimo.) 

E-san-i-not or nottu, the cape where volcanic matter descends. {Cape Esan.) 

Mopet kotan, the village by the quiet river, (ycip. Momhetsu.) 

Otaru nai, the brook by the sand road. 

Poropet koian, the village by the great river. 

Riri shiri, the high land, or the high island. 

Satporo kotan, the village of much dryness. 

Shira(/^) oi kotan, the village at the place of the issuing forth of gadflies. 

Tomakonai kotan, the village by the stream which issues from behind the lake. 

{yap. Tomakomai.) 
Yam kush nai kotan, the village by the stream of the chestnut burs. {Jap* 


50. — Many of the names of places in Japan, whose origin is doubtful, may probably 
be traced to the Ainu language. Particularly such names as have the following words in 
them : — 

Furu or huru, a hill ; a gentle slope ; 
an incline. 

Kush, husks ; burs. 

Kush-i, the place of husks or burs. (Cor- 
rupted by the Japanese into koshi.) 

Pet, a river. (Corrupted by the Japanese 
into beshi and betsu.) 

Pit or pichi, a flint ; a very hard stone ; 

51. — The Four Seasons are: — 

Paikara, spring. Sak, summer. 

Poru or boru, a cave in a rock, Por'i 
means, " the place of caves." 

Shiri, earth; land; an island. Applied 
to water ** swift;" as: — Shiri pet nu- 
puri (Jap. Shiri beshi yama), the 
mountain by the swift river. 

Shuma, a stone. 

To, a lake. 

Ya, land. 

Chuk, autumn. Mata, winter. 

Digitized by 



52. — ^The twelve months of the year are as follows. Their etymology is obscure, and 
they are now mostly supplanted by their Japanese equivalents : — 

Churup chup, January. Shimauta chup, July. 

Toitanne chup, February. Yaruru chup, August. 

Iloprap chup, March. Nuirak chup, September. 

Mokiuta chup, April. Ureipak chup, October. 

Shikiuta chup. May. Shineu chup, November. 

Momauta chup, June. Kuyekai chup, December. 
52. — The Four Quarters of the Compass are: — 

Hebera, north. Cliup pok, moshiri chup pok, moshiri 

Chup ka, moshiri chup ka, moshiri pa, gesh, west, 

east. Hebashi, south. 



54.— The adjectives of the Ainu language may be convcnienlly classed under two 
heads, viz., simple and compound : — 

Section 1. — Simple Adjectives. 

55. — ^The following are a few examples of the simple adjectives : — 

Atomte, neat. Poro, large; great. 

Ilekai, old. Ram, low. 

Ichakkere, dirty. Ratchi, gentle. 

Ipokash, ugly. Relara, white. 

Kapara, thin. Ri, high. 

Kotom, prett}'. Sep, broad. 

Para, broad. Shikari, round. 

Parakara, hot. Shiretok, beautiful. 

Pirika, good, Shisak, sweet. 

Pon, litde ; small. Wen, bad. 

Section 2. — Compound Adjectives. 

56. — The compound adjectives are very numerous. Of some, the derivation is as 
yet doubtful ; of others, it is more clear. Those of doubtful derivation end in //^, w//, 0, 
tekf and ttsh ; they are given first. 

{a) — Those 0/ doubtful derivation. 

57. — Adjectives which end in ue are as follows : — 

Ashkanne, clean. Onne, old. 

Etomochine, wanting; silly. Rupne, bulky; full-grown. 

Hutne, narrow. Takne, short. 

Irunne, thick. Tanne, long. 

Kunne, black. Toranne, idle, 

Digitized by 



58. — Adjectives which end in nu : — 

Aekat nu, delicious. 
Itak nu, obedient. 
Kiroro ash nu, strong. 
Nishash nu, healthy. 
Niwash nu, dih'gent. 

Okirash nu, strong. 
Otek nu, rich. 
Shin'nu, great. 
Tuniash nu, powerful, 
Wayash nu, wise. 

59. — Adjectives which end in o\ — 

Used as an adjectival ending, almost always indicates something disagreeable, and 
seems to be used principally after the names of insects ; e.g. 


Ki, a louse. 
Kikiri, an insect. 
Oaikanchi, an earwig. 
Taiki, a flea. 
Uruki, louse eggs, nits. 

60. — Adjectives which end in iek: — 

Akonuptck, interesting. 
Apuntek, gentle. 
Kimatek, startled. 
Kuttek, crowded ; thick, 
Monraigetek, industrious. 
Nuchattek, merry. 

61. — Adjectives which end in ush : — 

Ai-ush, thorny (used o/fri-es). 
Kem-ush, bloody. 
Koponchi'ujih, dusty. 
Kumi-ush, mould}'. 
Mun-ush, grassy. 

Nit-ush, thorny {used 0/ brambles). 
Numa-ush, hairy. 
Ota-ush, sandy. 


Ki-o, lousy. 

Kikiri-o, swarming with insects. 

Oaikanchi-o, swarming with earwigs. 

Taiki-o, full of fleas. 

Uruki-o, full of nits. See No, 202. 

Sattek, thin. 
Tuitek, lorn. 
Tushtek, mad ; crazy, 
Yaikopunlek, happy. 
Yuptck, laborious. 

Shippo-ush, sally. 
Shum-ush, oily. 
Toi-ush, earthy. 
Upa-ush, sooty. 
Wakka-ush, watery. 
Yachi-ush, miry. 
Yaipar'ush, greedy. 
Ye-ush, fatty ; mattery. 

62. — The following somewhat peculiar uses of the word ush should be carefully 
noted : — 

Apa-ush kamui, the deity of doorways (lit. ihe doory god), 
Abe-ush kamui, the deity of fires (lit. ihe fiery god), 

Chikiri-Ubh set, a table with legs (lit. a leggy /able)* 
Chup or'ush guru, the man in the moon (lit. /he moon inny man), 
Sar'ush chikoikip, an animal with a tail (lit. a /ally animal), 
Wakka-ush kamui, the deities of water (lit. /he wa/ery gods), 
63.— From an analysis of the above examples, and a careful consideration of other 
uses of the word ush, we may safely conclude that, whatever other meanings it may have, 
it often carries a locative sense with it. It is akin to the particle un, which is also loca- 
tive. Probably ush is the plural form of //;/. {For un see No, 2^8.) 

Digitized by 



(3.) — The adjeciives whose derivations are more clear, 

64. — Adjectives which take the verb an, to be, after them : — 

Kerne an, scarce; rare. Me an, cold. 

Kera an, sweet. Paro an, eloquent, 

Kiroro an, strong. Tumu an, plenteous ; abundant. 

It should be carefully noted by the student that the verb an not only means ** to be,*' 
but also *' to hold " and ** to have "; thus :— 

Kera an be, a sweet thing (lit. a thing that is sweet, or a thing having stveet- 

f/ess) . 
Kiroro an guru, a strong person (lit. a person having strength,) 

The context alone must always decide exactly how the sentence should be translated 
into English. 

65. — Adjectives ending with the verb Jtoro, ** to possess f' 

Haro koro, fat (lit. possessing /at); used of animals. 
Hon koro, pregnant (possessing stomach), 

Ikkewe koro, important ; weighty; strong (lit. possessing backbone or spine), 
Keutum koro, of strong mind, will, or disposition (lit. possessing mind or soui). 
Pawetok koro, eloquent. 

Sakanram koro, quarrelsome (lit. possessing a scolding heart), 
66. — Adjectives which take the word sak after them. 

The word sak signifies " destitution," and may be translated by the Englibh word 
'* without":— 

Ikkewe sak, meaningless, unreliable (lit. without backbone or spine), 

Ramu sak, foolish (lit. without mind), 

Shik sak or shik nak, blind (lit. without eyes), 

Tum sak, weak (lit. without stamina), 

Yainu sak or yainu-i sak, thoughtless (lit. without thinking ; without thought), 

67. — It might be inferred from the preceding examples that, by taking the afBrma- 
livc ending koro away from any noun, and supplying the negative word sak in its place, 
or vice versi, adjectives could be made at will. Such, however, is not the case. Thus, 
otek sak is "poor;" but " rich " is otek-nu, 

68. — One or two nouns take the locative particle un after them; thus: — 

Kotom un be, a beautiful thing, a thing of beauty. 

Paro un guru, an eloquent person (lit. a person 0/ mouth). 

Section 3.— Comparison of Adjectives. 

69. — ^The comparative and superlative degrees of adjeciives are by no means so ex- 
tensively used as in English and other Aryan languages, the meaning often being left to 
be gathered from the context. 

70. — When it is absolutely necessary to be explicit, the comparative degree is formed 
by placing the word naa, "yet," "more;" and the superlative by placing iyotta, "most," 
before the positive degree ; e.g. 

Digitized by 




Pirika, good. Nna pirika, belter. lyoUa pirika, best. 

Pon, small. Naa pon, smaller. lyolia pon, smallest. 

Ri, high. Naa ri, higher. lyotta ri, highest. 

And so on. 

71. — ^The comparative with "than" may be expressed in six different ways : — {a) 
with the word akkari ; (If) whh akiart Sim] eas/ika ; (c) with a k kan' ;\nd cilasa; (d) with 
akkari and mashki no ; {e) with akkari and naa ; (/") with kasti no. Two illustrations 
of each method are here given as examples. 

{a), — The comparative with akkari. Akkari originally means *' to surpass," and 
may be translated ** than ;" e.g. E akkari, ku nilan ruwe ne, I am faster than you (lit. 
than youy I go /as/), 

Nei tonoto akkari, tan tonoto shisak ne ruwe ne ; 

This wine is sweeter than that (lit. ihan that ivinc, this wine is sweet), 

(b), — The comparative with akkari dind eashka, Eashka means "very," "more," e.g. 
Ya akkari rep anak ne eashka poro ruwe ne ; 

The sea is greater than the land (lit. than the land, the sea is more great). 
Kunne chup akkari, tokap chup anak ne eashka nupeki an ambe ne ruwe ne, the sun is 
brighter than the moon (lit. than the moon^ the sun is a thing more bright), 

(r). — ^The comparative with akkari ?iX\d eiiasa, Eitasa means "excess": — 
Toan kotan akkari, tan kolan anak ne eitasa hangc no an kotan ne ruwe ne, this village is 

nearer than that (lit. than that village, this village is a nearer village,) 
Tambe akkari, nei ambe eitasa pirika ruwe ne, this is better than that. 

{J). — The comparative with akkari and mashki no, Mashki no means "surpass- 
ingly"; e.g. 
Umma akkari, isepo mashki no nitan ruwe ne, a hare is swifter than a horse (lit. than a 

horse f a hare is surpassingly swi/t of foot ^ 
Anekempo akkari, itunnap mashki no pon ruwe ne, an ant is smaller tJian a snail. 

(f). — The comparative with akkari and naa ; e.g. 
En akkari, eani naa shiwende ruwe ne, you are a slower walker than I (lit. than me, you 

go more slowly), 
Nibhkuru akkari, nochiu anak ne naa ri ruwe ne, the stars are higher than the clouds. 

(f), — The comparative with kasu no, Kasu no means "surpassing," e.g. 
En kasu n-^, e ri ruwe ne, you are taller than I (lit. surpassing me, you are tall.) 
E kasu no ku ram ruwe ne, I am shorter than you (lit. surpassing you, I am short). 

Section 4. — Demonstrative Adjectives. 

72. — The demonstrative adjectives "this," "that," "these" and "those," are as 
follows : — 

SINGULAR. plural. 

Ta an or tan, this. Tan okai, these. 

Ne a, that. Nei okai, those (a short distance off). 

Nei an, that {a short distance away). To an okai, those {a good distance off). 
To an, that (a good distance away). 

Digitized by 



73- — The singular form of ihese adjectives may be prefixed to plural nouns ; but the 
plural forms can never be placed before singular nouns. The reason is that okai is really 
a plural verb meaning " to dwell at " or ** be in " a place. 

74. — The demonstrative adjectives are also used for the third person singular and 
plural of the personal pronoun. See A'os. 112, iij^ ii^. 

Section 5. — The Influence of certain Particles and Words upon some of the 


75. — When the particle e is prefixed to certain adjectives it has the power of chang- 
ing them into verbs ; e.g. 

adjectives. verbs. 

Hapuru, soft. E hapuru, to be unable to endure. 

Nishte, hard. E nishte, to be able to endure. 

Pirika, good. E pirika, to gain. 

Wen, bad. E wen, to lose. 

76. — Some adjectives, by taking no after them, become adverbs ; e.g. 

adjectives. adverbs. 

Ashiri, new. Ashin'no, newly. 

Son, true. Sonno, truly. See No, i6(). 

See No. 16.9. 

J7, — A few adjectives become adverbs by taking the word iara after them ; e.g. 

adjectives. adverbs. 

Moire, slow. ^loire-tara, slowly. 

Ratchi, gentle. Ratchi-tara, gently. 

78. — When the letter/ is suffixed to some of the simple adjectives which end in a, 
Cf /, or (see Section i), or to any of the adjectives compounded with ve or nu (see 
Section 2, Nos. 57 and 58), they become nouns, thus: — 


adjectives. nouns. 

Atomte, neat. Atomtep, a neat thing. 

Ichakkere, dirty. Ichakkerep, a dirty thing. 

Kapara, thin. Kaparap, a ihin thing. 

Parakara, acrid ; pungent. Parakarap, a pungent thing. 

Piribi, good. Pirikap, a good thing. 

Poro, large. Porop, a large thing. 

Shikari, round. Shikarip, a round thing. 

A-ekat nu, delicious. A-ekat nup, a delicious thing. 

Ashkan ne, clean. Ashkan nep, a clean thing. 

Hut ne, narrow. Hut nep, a narrow thing. 

Wayash nu, wise. Wayash nup, a wise thing. 

79.— The letter/, which is here compounded with the adjectives, is a contraclion of 
pe ** a thing." This should be carefully borne in mind lest, in construing, mistakes 
should arise. The / converts the adjective, to which it is attached, into a concrete, not 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC ^ 


into an abstract noun. Thus, kaparap is not ** thinness," but *' a thin thing ; " and 
porop is not "largeness," but "a large thing"; nor is ivayash nttp ** wisdom," but 
** a wise person " or " thing." 

80. — As the other adjectives, namely a few of the simple, and all of the remaining 
compound adjectives, are incapable of taking the contracted form p after them, they are 
followed by the word in full, that is, pc softened into be, thus : — 

Hekai be, an old person. Sakanram koro be, a quarrelsome per- 

Kumi-ush be, a mouldy thing. son. 

Paro un be, an eloquent person. Turn sak be, a weak thing. 



81. — The numerals assume four forms in the Ainu language, viz. ; first, the Radical 
form; second, the Substantive form; third, the Ordinal form ; fourth, the Adverbial form. 

Section i. — The Radical Forms. 

82. — The radical forms of the numerals 

Shine i 

Tu 2 

Re 3 

Ine 4 

Ashikne 5 

Iwa(//) 6 

Arawa(«) 7 

Tupe-san 8 

Shinepe-san 9 

Wa(;;) 10 

Shine ikashima wa(;/) 11 

Tu ikashima wa(«) 12 

Re ikashima wa(f/) 13 

Ine ikashima wa(;/) 14 

Ashikne ikashima wa(;/) 15 

Iwan ikashima wa(;/) 16 

Arawan ikashima wa(;/) 17 

Tupe-san ikashima wa(w) 18 

Shinepe-san ikashima wa(;/) 19 

Hot ne 20 

83. — Twenty, more literally a ** score," 
mind when counting. Thus, forty is ** two 
{re hoi ne) ; eighty is " four score " {iue hot 
hot ne) . 

are as follows : — 

Shine ikashima hot ne 21 

Tu ikashima hot ne 22 

Re ikashima hot ne 23 

Ine ikashima hot ne 24 

Ashikne ikashima hot ne 25 

Iwan ikashima hot ne 26 

Arawan ikashima hot ne 27 

Tupe-san ikashima hot ne 28 

Shinepe-san ikashima hot ne 29 

Wan e, tu hot ne 30 

Shine ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne ... 31 

Tu ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 32 

Re ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 33 

Ine ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 34 

Ashikne ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 35 

Iwan ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 36 

Arawan ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 37 
Tupe-san ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 38 
Shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 39 
Tu hot ne 40 

is the highest unit ever present to the Ainu 
score " {tu hoi ne) ; sixty is " lliree score " 
ne) ; and a hundred is ** five score " {ashikne 

Digitized by 



84. — Numbers may be framed by means of scores to an indefinite extent; but in 
actual practice the higher numbers are rarely, if ever, met with. At the present day, the 
simpler Japanese method of numeration is rapidly supplanting the cumbrous native 

85.— In order to arrive at a clear comprehension of the Ainu system of counting, the 
student must carefully note the following two particulars : — 

(a.) — The word ikashima commonly means, ** excess,"" redundance ;" but with the 
numerals it signifies, **advliiion," "to add to." It is always placed after the number 
which is conceived of as added. 

{hi) — The particle e signifies " to subtract," " to take from," and follows the number 
which is supposed to be taken away. Care must therefore be taken not to confound this 
particle with the e which is used as a preposition, and which means, " to," ** towards " 
(See Chapter IX. Section 2 No. 196). Thus tu ikashima^ wa(n) is, " two added to 
ten," i.e. 12 ; and shinepe-san ikaskif/ia, ivaft e^ tu hoi ne^ is, "nine added to, ten taken 
from, two score ; " and so on. 

Shine ikashima, tu hot ne 41 

Tu ikashima, tu hot ne 42 

Re ikashima, tu hot ne 43 

Ine ikashima, tu hot ne 44 

Ashikne ikashima, tu hot ne 45 

Iwan ika-hima, tu hot ne 46 

Arawan ikashima, tu hot ne 47 

Tupe-san ikashima, tu hot ne 48 

Shinepe san ikashima, tu hot ne ... 49 

Wan e, re hot ne 50 

Shine ikashima, wan e, re hot ne... 51 

Tu ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 52 

Re ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 53 

Ine ikashima, wan e, re hot ne ... 54 

Ashikne ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 55 

Iwan ikashima, wan e, re hot ne ... 56 

Arawan ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 57 
Tupe-san ikashima, wan e, re hot 

ne 58 

Shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, re 

hot ne 59 

Fe hot ne 60 

Shine ikashima, re hot ne 61 

Tu ikashima, re hot ne 62 

Re ikashima, re hot ne 63 

Ine ikashima, re hot ne 64 

Ashikne ikashima, re hot ne 65 

Iwan ikashima, re hot ne 66 

Arawan ikashinii, re hot ne 67 

Tupe-san ikashima, re hot ne 68 





Shinepe-san ikashima, re hot ne ... 69 

Wan e, ine hot ne 70 

Shine ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 71 
Tu ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne ... 
Re ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne ... 
Ine ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne ... 
Ashikne ikashima, wan e, ine hot 


Iwan ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 
Arawan ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 
Tupe-san ikashima, wan e, ine hot 


Shinepe-san, ikashima, wan e, ine 

hot ne 79 

Ine hot ne 80 

Shine ikashima, ine hot ne 81 

lu ikashima, ine hot ne 82 

Re ikashima, ine hot ne 83 

Ine ikashima, ine hot ne 84 

Ashikne ikashima, ine hot ne 85 

Iwan ikashima, ine hot ne 86 

Arawan ikashima, ine hot ne 87 

Tupe-san ikashima, ine hot ne 88 

Shinepe-san ikashima, ine hotne... 89 

Wan e, ashikne hot ne 90 

Shine ikashima, wan c, ashikne hot 

ne 91 

Tu ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 92 
Re ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 93 
Ine ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 94 

Digitized by 



Ashikne ikashima, wan e, asbikne 

hot ne 95 

Iwan ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot 

ne 96 

Arawan ikashima, wan e, ashikne 

hot ne 97 

Tupe-san ikashima, wan e, ashikne 

hot ne 98 

Shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, ashik- 
ne hot ne 99 

Ashikne hot ne 100 

Shine ikashima, ashikne hot ne ... 10 1 

Wan e, iwan hot ne no 

Shine ikashima, wan e, iwan hot ne in 

Iwan hot ne 120 

Shine ikashima, iwan hot ne 121 

Wan e, arawan hot ne 130 

Shine ikashima, wan e, arawan hot ne 131 

Airawan hot ne 140 

Shine ikashima, arawan hot ne ... 141 

Wan e, tupe-san hot ne 150 

Shine ikashima, wan e, tupe-san 
hot ne 151 

Tupe-san hot ne 160 

Shine ikashima, tupe-san hot ne ... 161 

Wan e, shinepe-san hot ne 170 

Shine ikashima, wan e, shinepe-san 

hot ne 171 

Shinepe-san hot ne 180 

Shine ikashima, shinepe-san hct ne 181 

Wan e, shine wan hot ne 190 

Shine ikashima, wan e, shine wan 

hot ne 191 

Shine wan hot ne 200 

Ashikne hot ikashima, shine wan 

hot ne 300 

Tu shine wan hot ne 4CX) 

Ashikne hot ikashima, tu shine wan 

hot ne 500 

Re shine wan hot ne 600 

Ashikne hot ikashima, re shine wan 

hot ne 700 

Ine shine wan hot ne 800 

Ashikne hot ikashima, ine shine 

wan hot ne 900 

Ashikne shine wan hot ne 1,000 

86. — The radical form is always placed before the noun lo which it refers ; e.g. 

Shine itangi, one cup. Shine isepo, one hare. 

Tu ai, two arrows. Tu ichaniu, two salmon trout. 

Re kuitop, three wild geese. Re nok, three eggs. 

Ine retat chiri, four swans. Ine yaoshkep, four spiders. 

87. — The radical form shine is also often used as the indefinite article a or an. See 

Nos. 21 and 22. 

Section 2. — The Substantive Form. 

88. — The substantive form of the numeral is two-fold. For persons it is formed by 
adding «///, in some of the numbers abbreviated to the single consonant //. For things 
and animals it is formed by adding pe^ he, or the letter/ alone. Nin means ** person," 
and pe means " thing," e.g. 

89. — Nin, "a person." 

Shinen, one person. 
Tun, two persons. 
Ren, three persons. 
Inen, four persons. 
Ashikne niu, five persons. 
Iwa niu, six persons. 
Arawa niu, seven persons. 
Tupe-san niu, eight persons. 
Shinepe-san niu, nine persons, 

Wa niu, ten persons. 

Shinen ikashima, waniu, eleven persons. 

Tun ikashima, wa niu, twelve persons. 

Hot ne niu, twenty persons. 

Wa niu e, tu hot ne niu, thirty persons. 

Shinen ikashima, wa niu e, tu hot ne 
niu, thirty-one persons. 

Ashikne hot ne niu, one hundred per- 

Digitized by 



90.— P^, hcy p, '* thing." 

Shinep, one thing. 
Tup, two things. 
Rep, three things. 
Inep, four things. 
Ashiknep, five things. 
Iwanbe, six things. 
Arawanbe, seven things. 
Tupe-sanbe, eight things. 

Wanbe, ten things. 

Shinep ikashima, wanbe, eleven things. 

Tup ikashima, wanbe, twelve things. 

Hot nep, twenty things. 

Wanbe e, tu hot nep, twenty-one things. 

Shinep ikashima, wanbe e, tu hot nep, 

thirty-one things. 
Ashikne hot nep, one hundred things. 

Shinepe-sanbe, nine things. 

[N.B. — Note carefully the repetition of the noun after each numeral.] 

9^' — With the numbers two and three, quadrupeds and sometimes even inanimate 
objects are counted with the word pishy e.g. 

Seta shinep, one dog. Seta rep pish, three dogs. 

Seta tup pish, two dogs. Seta inep, four dogs. 

92. — Niuj pe and pish may be c .nsidered to correspond in some degree to the so- 
called " classifiers " or ** auxiliary numerals " of Chinese, Japanese, and many other 
Eastern languages ; but no further trace of such *' classifiers " exists. 

93. — ^The radical form can never be used in answer to a question. In such a case 
one of the substantive forms must be employed. 

94. — Some nouns are excluded by their nature from both the above categories. The 
following are a few such words. Kainui^ "god or gods ;" To^ *' a day ;" Tokap ** day ; " 
Kunne '' night," *' black.'' 

93. — Kamni is counted as follows :- 

Shine katnui, one god. 
Tu kamui, two gods. 
Re kamui, three gods. 
Ine kamui, four gods. 
Ashikne kamui, five gods. 
I wan kamui, six gods. 
Arawan kamui, seven gods. 
Tupe-san kamui, eight gods. 

Shinepe-san kamui, nine gods. 

Wan kamui, ten gods. 

Shine kamui ikashima, wan kamui, ele- 
ven gods. 

Tu kamui ikashima, wan kamui, twelve 

Hot ne kamui, twenty gods. 

And so on. 

96. — To is counted as follows : — 

Shine to, one day. 
Tut ko, two days. 
Re re ko, three days. 
Ine rere ko, four days. 
Ashikne rere ko, five days. 
I wan rere ko, six days. 
Arawan rere ko, seven days. 
Tupe-san rere ko, eight days. 
Shinepe-san rere ko, nine days. 
Wan to, ten days. 

Shine to ikashima, wan to, eleven days. 

Tut ko ikashima, wan to, twelve days. 

Rere ko ikashima, wan to, thirteen days. 

Hot ne to, twenty days. 

Wan to e, tu hot ne to, thirty days. 

Tu hot ne rere ko, forty days. 

Wan to e, re hot ne rere ko, fifty days. 

Re liot'nc rere ko, sixty days. 

Ashikne hot ne to, one hundred days. 

Digitized by 


i *• 


()'j.~Tokap IS counletl as follows: — 
Tokap shine to, one dn}\ 
Tok<ip tut ko, two daj^s* 
Toknp rere ko, tliree diiys, 
Tokap rere ko ine rcre ko, four days, 
Tokap rere ko ashikne rere ko, fire days, 
Tokap rere ko iwan rere ko, six days. 
Tokap rere ko arawan rcrc ko, seven daj's. 
Tokap rcre ko Uipe-saii rere kOj eiglit 


Toknp rere ko sbinepe-sin rere ko, nine 


And so on 

§3* — Kunnc is counted as follows: — 
Sliinc anciiikara, one niglit. 
Tu anchikara, two nigbis. 
Re ancliikara {nho kunne rcre ko), Lliree 

Kunne rere ko ine rere ko, four niglits, 
Kunne rere ko ashikne rcre ko, five 


Wan to, ten days. 

Toknp sliine to ikasUima, wan lO| eleven 

Tokap tut ko ikashima, wan to, twelve 

Tokap rere ko ikashima, wan to, thirteen 

Tokap rere ko lue rere ko ikasinmaj 

wall to, fourteen d^ys. 
Hot ne 10, twenty days. 

Klin tie rcre ko arawan rcre ko, seven 

Kunne rere ko lupe*san rere ko, eight 

Kunne rere ko shtuepe-san rere ko, nine 

Wan anchikara, ten niglits. 

Kunne rere ko iwan rere kn, six nights. 
And so on ; i.e. adding kitnfie and lunue rcre ko \\herever iokaf and iokap rtr€ ko 
M'ould be added to express " day." 

99, — When it is necessary to use such sentences as *' forty dnys and forty nights" 
(as in I\Iatt. IX. 2.), or "three days and three nights' (as in MaU. XIL ^o), tlie following 
method should be followed : — 

Tokap rere ko tu hot ne rere ko, kunne rcre ko tu hot ne rcre ko, i.e,, forty days (<i«rf) 

forty nights, 
Tokap rere ko, kunnc rere ko, i.e., three days {and) Uiree nights. 

Section 3,^Tfie Ordinal Fokm* 

100. — The ordinal numerals are expressed in two ways. The first is as follows : — 

Shine ikinne, first, Iwan Ikinne, sixdi. 

Tu ikinne, second. Arasvau ikinnc, seventh. 

Re ikinne, third, Tupe-san ikinne, eighth. 

Ine ikinne, fourdi. Shinepe-san ikinne, ninth. 

Ashikiie ikinne, fifth. Wan ikinne, tendi. 
And so on ; adding ikinns to the radical form wherever pc, h^ or / would be placed 
for the substantive form. 

lOi.^Tbe second way is as fallows, hut goes no higher tlmn ten. Above ten the 
first method alone is iti use ; — 

Shine tutanu, first. lye e iwan ikinne, sixth, 

Tu tutanu, second. lye e arawan ikinne, seventh. 


Digitized by 



lye e tupe-san ikinne, eighth, 
lye e shinepe-san ikinne, ninth, 
lye wan ikinne, tenth. 

When they are used, the noun is preceded 

lye e re ikinne, third, 
lye e ine ikinne, fourth, 
lye e ashikne ikinne, fifth. 

102. — ^The ordinals are rarely met with 
by no atiy e.g. 

Shine ikinne no an ainu, the first man. 
Shine tutanu no an chisei, the first house. 
And so on. 

Section 4. — The Adverbial Form. 

103. — The adverbial form of the numeral is formed by adding shui-ue to the radi- 
cal, e.g. 

Iwan shui-ne, six times. 
Arawan shui-ne, seven times. 
Tupe-san shui-ne, eight times. 
Shinepe-san shui-ne, times. 
Wa shui-ne, ten times. 
And so on. 

104. — ^The word shui-ne is compounded from shut, ** again" and «^, part of the 
verb ** to be ; *' shui-ne would therefore mean, " to be again." 

Section 5. — Miscellaneous. 

The following miscellaneous expressions may be conveniently here noted. 

105. — Pairs of articles are expressed by the word wr^«, "both," placed before the 
noun, e.g.: — 

Singular. Plural. 

Ara shui-ne, once. 
Tu shui-ne, twice. 
Re shui-ne, thrice. 
Ine shui-ne, four times. 
Ashikne shui-ne , five times. 

Chikiri, the leg ; foot. 
Huyehe, a cheek. 
Keire, a shoe. 
Kema, a foot ; a leg. 
Kesup, a heel. 
Kisara, an ear. 
Kokkasapa, a knee. 
Noyapi, a jaw. 

Uren chikiri, both legs or feet. 
Uren huyehe, both cheeks. 
Uren keire, both shoes. 
Uren kema, both feet or legs. 
Uren kesup, both heels. 
Uren kisara, both ears. 
Uren kokkasapa, both knees. 
Uren noyapi, both jaws. 

106. — One of a pair is expressed by prefixing the word oara to the noun, e.g. : — 

Paraori, insteps. Oara paraori, one instep. 

Patoi, lips. Oara patoi, one lip. 

Raru, eyebrows. Oara raru, one eyebrow. 

Shiki, eyes. Oara shiki, one eye. 

Tapsutu, shoulders. Oara tapsutu, one shoulder. 

Teke, hands. Oara teke, one hand. 

Tokumpone, ankles. Oara tokumpone, one ankle. 

Digitized by 



107- — It may be found useful to note also the following phrases :- 

(a.) Sliinen shinen, one by one. ") 

Tun tun, two and two. > Used only of persons. 

Ren ren, three and three. ) 

And so on. 

(b.) Shinen range, singly. "^ 

Tun range, by twos. > Used only of persons. 
Ren range, by threes. ) 

And so on. 

(r.) Shinep shinep, one by one.'\ 

Tup tup, two and two. ( ^ ^ ^^ ^^j^^jg ^„j „,; ^ 

Shinep range, snigly. C ° 

Tup range, by twos. ) 

And so on. 

(d,) Chup emko e, tu chup, a month and a half. 
Chup emko e, re chup, two months and a half. 

And so on. 

Tan to hempak rere ko an a? what is the day of the month ? 

(e.) The different words for ** half," are as follow : — 

Arike, the half of a long thing {split longwise), 
Emko, the half of a long thing {cut through), 
Nimara, half a measure. 

Noshikcy sometimes used for half, (really centre), 
Oukoroy half-way through. 



Section i. — The Personal Pronouns. 

io8. — ^The forms of the personal pronouns differ according to the context and to the 
degree of respect meant to be expressed. 

109. — The pronouns of the first person singular are : — 

Ku, iuani, kaniy and chokai, 

{a.) Ku was probably the original word, and it is still used with verbs, whereas 
^//fl«/' stands isolated, chiefly at the beginning of sentences, like the French **moi," thus: 
Kuani ku nukara, corresponds exactly to **Moi je vois." 

(h^ Kuani seems to be derived from ku^ *' 1," an, the substantive verb " to be," 
and the particle /, which, when placed after adjectives and verbs, turns them into 
substantives. See Nos, jo, j/, /pg, 

{c) Kani is simply a contraction of kuani, 

{d,) Chokai is contracted from chi which means "we," and ohait which signifies 

Digitized by 



"to be at" or " in a place." This word is therefore a plural, but it has now, in some 
cases at least, a singular signification. 

(e.) Kuani 2ind ^ani ave polite forms; chokai is a more humble word. 
C/.) In some parts of the country ku sometimes becomes he, or even ky before 
vowels, but the form ku is in general use and is everywhere understood ; thus : — 

Ku eshokoro (local, he eshokoro), I believe. 
Ku oira {local, k'oira), I forget. 

no. — ^The pronouns of die second person singular are : — 

Ey eani\j'ant\ aokai, and anokai\ 

{a,) -£* appears to be the original word from which eanihd.^ been formed ; thus: — 

E-an-i, as shown in ku-an-i above. 

{b,) Fani is a very contemptuous expression, and is a corruption of eani, 

(r.) Aokaiy which is a contraction of anokai, is, like anokai, a more polite form of 
speech than eani, but neither are so often used. Like chokat\ aokai Tind anokai were 
originally plurals, and are still so used in certain contexts. 

III. — Sometimes the words ^w j/;/;-^;//« and e shirotna are heard for the first and 
second person singular respectively, but not often. Shiroma is a verb meaning "to 
abide," "to stay." T\\\x% ku shiroma really means " I who am here ; " and e shiroma 
"you who are there." 

112. — ^The Third Person. 

There is no proper third personal pronoun. Its place is supplied by the demonstra- 
tive adjectives, e.g. {Compare Chapler III, Section 4, Nos. 72-73). 

Tan guru, this person, {man or woman). 

Tarn be ; this thing. 

Nei ambe or guru, that thing or person {a Hi tie ivay off). 

To ambe or guru, that thing or person {a greater distance off). 

Tap, this thing {ivhether far off or near), 

Ne a ikiyap, that thing or fellow {a word 0/ contempt), 

112 (rt.)— Sometimes, however, the particle a contracted from anun, "another per- 
son," or " the other person," is used as an honourable way of speaking of one's own 
master or a superior; thus : — 

A e hotuyekara, he is calling you. 
A nun, pronounced in full, is sometimes used by a servant when addressing his 

In such cases anun means "you"; thus: — 
Hunna? who? — Anun, the other person, i.e. you. 

113. — The above forms are used only at the beginning of sentences, and are never 
immediately prefixed to verbs. Before verbs, "we" is expressed by r/;/, and "ye "by 
by echi. The following are examples : — 

Chi utara anakne Ainu chi ne, we are Ainu. 
Jlchi \itara anakne Ainu echi ne, ye are Ainu, 

Digitized by 



Chi nukara, we see. 

Chi hoshippa an ro, let us return, 

Echi eraman ruwe he an ? Do ye understand ? 

Hunak un echi paye ? Where are you going to ? 

114. — The plurals of the third personal pronouns are as follows : — 
Tan utara or tan okai utara, these persons. 
Nei utara or nei okai utara, they (persons a Utile way off). 
To an utara or to okai utara, they {persons farther off). 
Tan okai be, these things, these. 
Nei okai be, those things, they (a short distance azvay). 

To okai b^j ^^} tliose things, they (a greater distance off). 

[N.B.] — Care should be taken not to use fe or b when persons are intended ; for/^ 
or de can only be applied to the lower orders of creation. 

115. — The reflexive pronoun j'aiiota, ** self,'* is used as follows : — 

Kuani yaikota ; I myself. 

Eani yaikota ; you yourself. 

Nei guru yaikota ; he himself or she herself. 

116. — Before verbs a kind of double reflexive is sometimes used ; thus : — 

Yaikota yai-raige ; he killed himself. (See A'^os. i6j'i6^.) 

Section 2. — The Cases of Pronouns. 

117. — The various forms of the first and second persons mentioned above in Sect, i 
may be termed nominatives. The following examples will illustrate this : — 

Kuani lanebo ku ek ruwe ne, I have just come (i.e. come for the first time). 

Eani e arapa ya ? have you been ? 

Eani nepka e ye ya ? did you say something? 

Ku oman, I am going. 

Ku kon rusui, I desire it. 

E ek, come thou. 

E irushka ya ? are you angry ? 

118.— The following are examples of the longer form of pronouns, used without the 
corresponding short ones, e.g. : — 

Eani nekon a eramu ya? what do you think? 
Kuani e kore, I will give it to you. 

119. — The first person has, moreover, forms corresponding to the English objective 
case. They are en for the singular " me ;" and un and / for the plural " us ;*' e.g. : — 

Nei guru en kik, he struck me. 
Seta en emik, the dog baiked at me. 
Kamui un kara, God made us. 
Wakka un kore, give us some water. 
I omap, he loves us. 
Nei guru i kik, he strqck us. 

Digitized by 



Umma a-o yakka i enkala mun utasa, even though we go on horseback the 
grass reaches over us. 

120. — In the second person the objective case is rendered by e for the singular, and 
echi for the plural ; never by the longer forms given in Section i ; e.g. : — 

Seta e kuba, the dog will bite you. 
Umma e kohoketu, the horse will kick you. 
Kuani echi uitek ash, I will employ you. 
Soyai echi chotcha na, the wasp will sting you. 

121. — The action of the first person upon the second is indicated by placing the 
objective of the person before the Verb, and word ash after it ; thus : — 

Kuani echi kik ash, I will beat you {plural), 
Kuani e omap ash, 1 love you {singular), 
Chi utara echi nure ash, we will tell you {plural), 
Chi utara e kore ash, we will give it to you (singular), 

122. — When construed with passive verbs, the second person takes the substantive 
verb an after the verb ; e.g. 

E omap an, you are loved. 
Echi kara an, ye are made. 

123. — The third person has no special forms for the objective case, thus : — 

Tan utara a-kik nangoro, they will be struck. 

Nei ainu a-ronnu wa isam, those men have been killed. 

124. — Postpositions sometimes take the objective case of pronouns, and sometimes 
the full form ; e.g. : — 

En orowa oman, he went from me. 

Un oshi ek, come behind us. 

Aokai otta perai ambe okai luwe he an } have you any fishing tackle ? 

Eani orowa no arapa guru, the person who went after you. 

Section 3. — The Possessive Pronouns. 

125. — The possessive forms of pronouns are obtained by adding >t^;'^, sometimes 
softened into goro^ to the personal pronoun. Koro means ** to possess ; " e.g. : — 


Ku koro, my. Chi koro, our. 

E koro, thine. Echi koro, your. 

Tan guru koro, ") Tan okai utara koro, ") 

Nei guru koro, > his or her. Nei okai utara koro, > their. 

To an guru koro, ) To an okai utara koro, 

126. — The double form may be used ; thus : — 


Kuani ku goro, my. Chi utara chi koro, our. 

Eani e koro, thy. Echi utara echi koro, your. 

Digitized by 



127. — Sometimes a-koro is used Instead of chi koro, but not often. When there is 
no likelihood of ambiguity, the word koro is dropped ; e.g. 


Ku michi, my father. Chi uni, our home. 

E habo, thy mother. Echi oltena, your chief. 

Section 4. — The Relative Pronouns. 

128. — ^The relative pronouns may be expressed in the following manner; — 

(a,) With the words sekoro and art] thus : — 

Ainu sekoro aye utara, the people who are called Ainu. 
Shirau ari aye kikiri, the insects called gad-flies. 

(b.) With the verb used attributively ; e.g. 

A-raige-guru, the person who was killed (lit. ihe killed per soil), 

Ainu raige guru, the person who killed a man (lit. the person killing man), 

Umma guru, the person who rides the horse (lit. the horse riding person). 

Section 5. — The Indefinite Pronouns. 

129. — ^The indefinite pronouns are as follows : — 

Nen neyakka, *) 

Nen nen neyakka, > Anyone, everyone, whosoever. 

Nen ne kuru ka, ) 

Nep nerneyakka, ] Anything, ever>'thing, whatsoever. 

Inambfntjllkka, } ^^^^^^' whatever, whichever. 

Nepka, something. Nenka, someone. 

Section 6. — ^The Interrogative Pronouns. 

130. — ^The interrogative pronouns are : — 

Hunna or hunnak, who ? Inan or inan ike, which ? 

Hemanda or makanak, what? Nekon a, what kind ? 



Section i. — Preliminary remarks on the Verb. 

131. — Verbs, in the Ainu language, have but one mood, namely, the indicative. 
The imperative and all the indirect or oblique moods, as well as the desiderative forms 
and all the tenses, are expressed by means of separate words. No verb, therefore, can 
be conjugated without the use of various auxiliaries. 

Digitized by 




132. — These auxiliaries are, for the present lense, as follows : — 
(a.) Ruwe ne. 

These words indicate that a subject is concluded, or a sentence finished. They 
therefore equal what is commonly called ** the conclusive form." 
(Jb.) Shiri ne, 

Shiri is a verb meaning *' to be doing." When placed after other verbs, it indicates 
that the action is still going on. 

(c,^ Koran, 

Koran is short for koro an, and means " to be possessing." When used as an 
auxiliary to verbs, it, like shiri ne, signifies that the action is still in progress. It ex- 
presses, so to speak, '* the very act." 

{d.) Tap an. 

The words tap an mean "it is so," and, added to verbs, they give them an emphatic 
force. It is as though one said, "it is so, and no mistake." 

133. — For the past tense the following auxiliaries are used : — 

{a.) Nisa, 

This word seems to be the proper auxiliary for the past tense. Its real meaning is 

(3.) Okere, 

Okere is a verb meaning " to finish ;" and, when added to other verbs, gives them a 
conclusive force. When so used, it resembles the English perfect tense, 
(f.) Awa, 

This word is a passive participle meaning " being," "having been." When placed 
after a verb, it indicates that one thing having been done, another was commenced, e.g. 
Ki awa, oman ruwe ne, having done it, he went away. 
{(I.) A-eramu shinne. 

For the past tense of eating and drinking, the words a-eramu shinne are sometimes 
used ; e.g. 

Ibe a-eramu shinne, I have eaten, or finished eating. 
Iku a-eramu shin ne, I have drunk, or finished drinking. 

134. — The letter a is a passive particle. Eramu is a verb meaning " to understand," 
" to know," Shinne is a shortened form of shiri ne, mentioned above under No. 2 (Ji), 
Thus ibe a-eramu shinne really means " I am in a state of knowing that I have eaten." 

135. — ^The future tense. 

Only one auxiliary is used to indicate future time, viz. nangoro. Like the rest, it 
also follows the verb to which it has reference. 

136. — The words ruive ne may be added to the root or to either of the above 
auxiliaries ; and the particle na, which has also a conclusive force in it, may follow them. 

137. — Both the past and future tenses maybe indicated by adverbs of time being 
placed before the person of the verb. In such cases, the auxiliaries may be retained or 
omitted at pleasure. 

Digitized by 



138. — It will be seen by reference to the passive voice, that, with the second person 
singular and plural, the verb an always follows the chief verb. An is the substantive verb 
" to be." 

139. — ^The verbs of the Ainu language naturally resolve themselves into two divi- 
sions, viz. : — 

(a.) Those of unchanging stem. To this class belong all verbs ending otherwise 
than in ra or ro, 

(3.) Those whose stems change. These verbs end only in ra and ro. The two 
verbs kik^ "to strike," and kara, *4o make," have been given as illustrations of these 
two categories. 

Section 2. — Paradigms of Verbs. 

Class i. Verbs of Unchanging Stem. 

The Verb Kik, " To Strike." 


140. — Present Tense. 

{a,) The first Present tense. 


Ku kik, I strike. 
E kik, you strike. 
Kik, (he) strikes. 


A-en kik, I am struck. 
E kik an, you are struck. 
A-kik, (he) is struck. 

(3.) — ^The present tense with the auxiliary ruwe ne. 

SINGULAR. (active.) 

Ku kik ruwe ne, I strike. 
E kik ruwe ne, you strike. 
Kik ruwe ne, (he) strikes. 

(active.) PLURAL. 

Chi kik, we strike. 
Echi kik, ye strike. 
Kik, (they) strike. 

(passive.) plural. 

A-un kik, we are struck. 
Echi kik an, ye are struck. 
A-kik, (they) are struck. 


Chi kik ruwe ne, we strike. 
Echi kik ruwe ne, ye strike. 
Kik ruwe ne, (they) strike. 


A-en kik ruwe ne, I am struck. 
E kik an ruwe ne, you are struck. 
A-kik ruwe ne, (he) is struck. 

(f.) — The present tense with the words shiri ne. 

SINGULAR. (active.) 

Ku kik shiri ne, I am striking. 
E kik shiri ne, you are striking. 
Kik shiri ne, (he) is striking. 

(passive.) plural. 

A-un kik ruwe ne, we are struck. 
Echi kik an ruwe ne, ye are struck. 
A-kik ruwe ne, (they) are struck. 


Chi kik shiri ne, we are striking. 
Echi kik shiri ne, ye are striking. 
Kik shiri ne, (they) are striking. 

Digitized by 



SINGULAR. (passive.) PLURAL. 

A-en kik shiri ne, I am being struck. A-un"kik shiri ne, wc are being struck. 

E kik an shiri ne, you are being struck. Echi kik an shiri ne, ye are being struck. 
A-kik shiri ne, (he) is being struck. A-kik shiri ne, (ihcy) are being struck. 

(^/.) — The present tense with koro an. 


Ku kik kor*an, I am striking. 
E kik kor an, you are striking. 
Kik kor an, (he) is striking. 

(active.) PLURAL. 

Chi kik kor'an, we are striking. 
Echi kik kor'an, ye are striking. 
Kik kor'an, (they) are striking. 


A-en kik kor'an, I am being struck. 
E kik an kor'an, you are being struck. 
A-kik kor'an, (he) is being struck. 

{e) The present tense with ruive tap an 

(passive). PLURAL. 

A-un kik kor'an, we are being struck. 
E-chi kik an kor'an, ye are being struck. 
A-kik kor'an, they are being struck. 


Ku kik ruwe tap an, I strike. 
E kik ruwe tap an, you strike. 
Kik ruwe tap an, he strikes. 


A-en kik ruwe tap an, I am struck. 
E kik an ruwe tap an, you are struck. 
A-kik ruwe tap an, Che) is struck. 

141. — Past Tense. 

{a) The past tense with nisa, 


Ku kik nisa, I struck. 
E kik nisa, you struck. 
Kik nisa, (he) struck. 


A-en kik nisa, I was struck. 
E kik an nisa, you were struck. 
A-kik nisa, (he) was struck. 
(3.) The past tense with oJ^ere, 


Ku kik okere, I struck. 
E kik okere, you struck. 
Kik okere, (he) struck. 


A-en kik okere, I was struck. 
E kik an okere, you were struck. 
A-kik okere, (he) was struck. 

(active). plural. 

Chi kik ruwe tap an, we strike. 
Echi kik ruwe tap an, ye stiike. 
Kik ruwe tap an, they strike. 

(passive). plural. 

A-un kik ruwe tap an, we are struck. 
Echi kik an ruwe tap an, ye are struck. 
A-kik ruwe tap an, (they) are struck. 

(active.) plural. 

Chi kik nisa, we struck. 
Echi kik nisa, ye struck. 
Kik nisa, (they) struck. 

(passive). plural. 

A-un kik nisa, we were struck. 
Echi kik an nisa, ye were struck. 
A-kik nisa, (they) were struck. 

(active.) plural. 

Chi kik okere, we struck. 
Echi kik okere, ye struck. 
Kik okere, (they) struck. 

(passive.) plural. 

A-un kik okere, we were struck. 
Echi kik an okere, ye were struck. 
A-kik okere, (they) were struck, 

Digitized by 



(r.) The past tense with awa. In certain combinations this form is equal to the 
English perfect tense : — 

SINGULAR. (active.) PLURAL. 

Ku kik awa, I have struck, or I struck. Chi kik awa, we have struck, or we struck. 
E kik awn, you have struck, or you struck. Echi kik awa, ye have struck, or ye struck. 
Kik awa, (he) has struck, or (he) struck. Kikawa, (they) have struck, or (they) struck. 


A-en kik awa, I have been struck, or 1 was struck. 
E kik an awa, you have been struck, or you were struck. 
A-kik awa, (he) has been struck, or (he) was struck. 

[It would be equally correct to translate awa by *' having been," as : — e kik an awa, 
you having been struck."] 


A-un kik awa, we have been struck, or we were struck. 
Echi kik an awa, ye have been struck, or ye were struck. 
A-kik awa, (they) have been struck, or (they) were struck. 
142. — The future tense. 

SINGULAR. (active.) PLURAL. 

Ku kik nangoro, I will strike. Chi kik nangoro, we will strike. 

E kik nangoro, }0u will strike. Echi kik nangoro, ye will strike. 

Kik nangoro, (he) will strike. Kik nangoro, we (they) will strike. 

singular. (passive.) plural. 

A-cn kik nangoro, I shall be struck. A-un kik nangoro, we shall be struck. 

E kik an nangoro, you will be struck. Echi kik an nangoro, ye will be struck. 

A-kik nangoro, (he) will be struck. A-kik nangoro, (they) will be struck. 

143. — The Imperative is expressed thus : — 

singular. (active.) plural. 

Kik, strike thou. Kik yan, strike ye. 

Kik anro, let us strike. 

singular. (passive.) plural. 

E a-kik, be thou struck. Echi a-kik yan, be ye struck. 

A-un kik anro, let us be struck. 

144. — Desire is expressed by the word rusui; e.g. 

singular. (active.) plural. 

Ku kik rusui, I desire to strike. Chi kik rusui, we desire to strike. 

E kik rusui, you desire to strike. Echi kik rusui, ye desire to strike. 

Kik rusui, (he) desires to strike. Kik rusui, (ihey) desire to strike. 

singular. (passive.) plural. 

A-en kik rusui, I was desired to strike. A-un kik rusui, we were desired to 


Digitized by 



E kik an rusui, you were desired lo Echi kik an rusui, ye were desired to 

strike. strike. 

A-kik rusui, (he) was desired to strike. A-kik rusui, (they) were desired to 


145. — ^The Potential TMood may be expressed in two ways; (a) by the word eiokush; 
(Jb) by the words kusu tie ap, 

(a.) The Potential with etokush, 

SINGULAR. (active.) PLURAL. 

Ku kik etokush, I must strike. Chi kik etokush, we must strike. 

E kik etokush, you must strike. Echi kik etokush, ye must strike. 

Kik etokush, (he) must strike. Kik etokush, (they) must strike. 

SINGULAR. (passive.) PLURAL. 

A-en kik etokush, I must be struck. A-un kik etokush, we must be struck. 

E kik an etokush, you must be struck. Echi kik an etokush, ye must be struck. 

A-kik etokush, (he) must l)e struck. A-kik etokush, (they) must be struck. 

(b.) The Potential with kusu ne ap, 



Ku kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, I ought to strike. 
E kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, you ought to strike. 
Kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, (he) ought to strike. 


Chi kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, we ought to strike. 
Echi kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, ye ought to strike. 
Kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, (they) ought to strike. 


A-en kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, I ought to be struck. 
E kik an kusu ne ap ruwe ne, you ought to be struck. 
A-kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, (he) ought to be struck. 


A-un kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, we ought to be struck. 
Echi kik an kusu ne ap ruwe ne, ye ought to be struck. 
A-kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, (they) ought to be struck. 

146. — Concession, condition, and hypothesis are expressed in the following ways: — 

Ku kik koroka, though I strike. Ku kik yak un, 7 Tf t cf ii^o 

Ku kik chiki, ■^ Ku kik ko, j ^^ ^ ^^"*^^- 

Ku kik vak, ( ic i * -i Ku kik ita, ')xxr\ t ♦ -i ,. 

Ku kik jak anakne, [ " ^ ''"^'- Ku kik koro j^^^^" ^ '^''^^- 

Ku kik yak ne, ) Ku kik yakka, even if I strike. 

[N.B. — For examples of the uses of these particles, the student is referred to Chapter X.] 

147. — Any part of the conjugation of a verb, the imperative mood excepted, may be 
made negative in either of the following ways: — 

Digitized by 



(a.) — By placing the word shomo or seenne before the person of a verb, thus : — 

Shomo (or seenne) ku kik ruwe ne, I do not strike. 

Shomo (or seenne) a-un kik nisa ruwe tap an, we were not struck. 

(3.) — By placing shomo ki after the verb in any of the present tense forms, and be- 
tween the verb and nangoro of the future tense, thus : — 

Ku kik shomo ki ruwe ne, I do not strike. 

A-en kik shomo ki nangoro, I shall not be struck. 

148. — The negative imperative is : — 

SINGULAR. (active.) PLURAL. 

Iteki kik, do not strike. Iteki kik yan, do not strike. 

SINGULAR. (passive.) PLURAL. 

Iteki e a-kik, be thou not struck. Iteki echi a-kik yan, be ye not struck. 

149. — Doubtfulness is expressed by the word koioman being placed after the verb, 
thus : — 

Kik kotoman, he will probably strike ; or, it is thought that he will strike. 
A-un kik shomo ki kotoman, we shall probably not be struck. 

1 50. — ^The English participles may be rendered as follows : — 

PRESENT. (active.) PAST. 

K'k "^^ I s^^^^"&* ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^' having struck. 


Kik kushne, about to strike. 
past or perfect. 

Kik awj' } ^^^^"8^ ^^^^ s^^^^^- 
Class 2. — Verbs with Stem ending in *'ra and ro." 
the verb kara ** to make." 
151. — For the sake of brevity this paradigm is given in an abridged form : — 

SINGULAR. (active.) PLURAL. 

Ku kara, I make, etc. Chi kara, we make, etc. 

SINGULAR. (passive.) PLUR.\L. 

A-en kara, I am made, etc. A-un kara, we are made, etc. 

SINGULAR. (active.) PLURAL. 

Ku kan ruwe ne, I make, etc. Chi kan ruwe ne, we make, etc. 

SINGULAR, (passive.) PLURAL. 

A-en kan ruwe ne, I am made, etc. A-un kan ruwe ne, we are made, etc. 

152. — It should be noted here that before ruwe, ra and ro are always changed into 
«. Shiri nt and kor'an take the full form kara before them. 

Digitized by 



153. — It will be seen, in the past and future tenses, that ra and to also become n 
before ;/ ; thus : — 


Ku kan nisa, I made. 

Ku kan nangoro, I will make, etc. 


A-en kan nisa, I was made. 

(active^) plural. 

Chi kan nisa, we made. 
Chi kan nangoro, we will make, etc. 

(passive.) plural. 

A-un kan nisa, we were made. 

A-en kan nangoro, I shall be made, etc. A-un kan nangoro, we shall be made, etc. 

154. — All the other parts of verbs ending in ra aud ro are conjugated exactly like 
Gass I ; the student is therefore referred to the verb kik» 

155. — ^The following list contains a few of the most common verbs ending in ra 
and ro\ — 

Annokara, to defeat. 
Etu-kara, to wipe the nose. 
Eyukara, to mock. 
Horopsekara, to sip up. 
Hunara, to search for. 
Ikirikara, to put in order. 
Ingara, to look at. 
Kokarakara, to roll up. 
Koramnukara, to tempt. 
Nukara, to see. 
Tapkara, to dance. 
Uchishkara, to weep together. 
Utomnukara, to marry. 


Eshokoro, to believe. 

Ikakoro, to gallop. 

Koro, to have. 

Koramkoro, to beg. 

Maushoro, to whistle. 

Mokoro, to sleep. 

Omoikoro, to commit adultery. 

Temkoro, to embrace. 

Ukopahaukoro, to hold intercourse. 

Upaurekoro, to contradict. 

Ukorarakoro, to hold counsel. 

Section 3. — Verbs having a special Plural Form. 

156. — There are some verbs which have special forms to indicate whether the object 
referred to is of the singular or plural number. The words resu, ** to bring up," and 
uky ** to take," have been selected as examples of them, and one form of the present 
tense, indicative mood, is here given to show the manner in which such verbs are 
conjugated : — 

(<7.) — The verb rcsu. 

Ku resu, 1 bring up one. 
E resu, you bring up one. 
Resu, (he) brings up one. 

A-en resu, I am brought up. 
E resu an, you are brought up. 
A-resu, (he) is brought up. 

(active.) plural. 

Chi reshpa ash, we bring up many. 
Echi reshpa ash, ye bring up many. 
Reshpa ash, (they) bring up many. 

(passive.) plural. 

A-un reshpa ash, we are brought up. 
Echi reshpa an, ye are brought up. 
A-reshpa ash, (they) are brought up. 

Digitized by 


(^.)— The verb uk. 


Ku uk, I take one. 
E uk, you take one. 
Uk, (he) takes one. 


A-en uk, I am taken. 
E uk an, you are taken. 
A-uk, (he) is taken. 

157. — ^The following list contains-a 


Ahun, one to enter. 
Arapa, one to go. 
Ash, one to stand. 
Aship, one to flower. 
Ek, one to come. 
Heashi, one to begin. 
Hekatu, one to be born. 
Hepirasa, one to blossom. 
Hetuku, one to come forth. 
Hopuni, one to fly. 
Hoshipi, one to return. 
Hotuikara, to call one. 
Hoyupu, one to run. 
Mesu, to break one. 
Oashin, to send one forth. 
Pi rasa, to open one out. 
Raige, to kill one. 
Ran, one to come down. 
Resu, to bring one up. 
Rise, to root one up. 
San, one to descend. 
Soso, to flay one. 
Tui, to cut one. 
Turi, to stretch one out. 
Uk, to take one. 
Shipirasa, one to increase. 


(active.) plural. 

Chi uina, we take many. 
Echi uina, ye take many. 
Uina, (they) take many. 

(passive.) plural. 

A-un uina ash, we are taken. 
Echi uina an, you are taken, 
A-uina ash, (they) are taken. 

few verbs which belong to this category :- 

Ahup ash, many to enter. 
Paye ash, many to go. 
Roshki Ash, many to stand. 
Ashippa ash, many to flower. 
Ariki ash, many to come. 
Heashpa ash, many to begin. 
Hekatpa ash, many to be born. 
Hepiraspa ash, many to blossom. 
Hetukba ash, many to come forlh. 
Hopunba arh, many to fly. 
Hoshippa ash, many to return. 
Hotuipa ash, to call many. 
Hoyuppa ash, many to run. 
Mespa ash, to break many. 
Oaship ash, to send many forlh. 
Piraspa ash, to open many out. 
Ronnu ash, to kill many. 
Rap ash, many to come down. 
Reshpa ash, to bring many up. 
Rishpa ash, to root up many. 
Sap ash, many to descend. 
Sospa ash, to flay many. 
Tuipa ash, to cut many. 
Turuba ash, to stretch many out. 
Uina ash, to take many. 
Shipiraspa ash, many to increase. 

Section 4.— Transitive and Causative Forms. 
158. — Intransitive verbs are made transitive and causative in the following manners, 
159. — Verbs ending in ray n\ and rOj change the final vowel into e] e.g. ; — 
intransitive. transitive, 

Eshokoro, to believe. Eshokore, to cause to believe, 

Hachiri, to falj. Haphire, to throw down, 

Digitized by 



Kara, to make. 
Koro, to possess. 
Mokoro, to sleep. 
Nukara, to see. 

Kare, to cause to make. 
Kore, to give. 
Mokore, to put to sleep. 
Nukare, to show. 

1 60. — Other verbs add ge, ka, ie, de, or re to the stem, usage alone deciding in each 
case which of the suffixes shall be employed ; e.g. : — 

(a.) Verbs which take ^^.- — 


Ahun, to enter, 
Rai, to die. 
Ran, to come down. 
San, to go down. 
Yan, to go up. 

(3.) Verbs which take ka : — 


Isam, there is not. 
lunin, to suffer pain. 
Kotuk, to touch or stick. 
Ush, to go out. 
Uliuye, to burn. 

(r.) Verbs which take ie : — 


Ash, to stand. 

Ash, to rain. 

At, to shine. 

Chish, to cry. 

Eshirikopash, to lean against. 

((/.) Verbs which take de : — 


An, to be. 
Oman, to go away. 
Rikin, to ascend. 

(^.) Verbs which take re : — 


Arapa, to go. 
Hekiitu, to be born. 
Hetuku, to grow. 
Oma, to be inside. 
Ru, to melt. 


Ahunge, to put in. 
Raige, to kill. 
Range, to let down. 
Sange, to send down. 
Yange, to take up. 


Isamka, to annihilate, 
luninka, to agonise. 
Kotukka, to stick on. 
Ushka, to extinguish. 
Uhuyeka, to light. 


Ashte, to set up. 
Ashte, to cause to rain. 
Atte, to cause to shine. 
Chishte, to make cry. 
Eshirikopashte, to set against. 


Ande, to put down, to place. 
Omande, to send away. 
Rikinde, to cause to ascend. 


Arapare, to send. 
Hekature, to cause to be born. 
Hetukure, to make grow. 
Omare, to put in. 
Rure, to melt down. 

160, — (a.) Transitive verbs are made causative by adding re to them ; — 

Digitized by 




E, to eat. 
Ibe, to eat. 
Jku, to drink. 
Ki, to do. 

Shikkashima, to seize. 
Ta, to draw (as water). 


Ere, to cause to eat, to feed. 
Ibere, to cause to eat, to feed. 
Ikure, to make drink. 
Kire, to make do. 
Shikkashimare, to make seize. 
Tare, to make draw. 

i6i. — Sometimes verbs are made doubly causative. The following aie a few 
examples : — 

Ahun, to enter ; ahunge, to send in ; ahungere, to cause to send in. 

Ash, to stand ; ashte, to set up ; ashtere, to cause to set up. 

Ibe, to eat ; ibere, to feed ; iberere, to cause to feed. 

San, to go down ; sange, to send down ; sangere, to cause to send down. 

162. — Causatives, like the root form of verbs, admit of both an active and passive 
conjugation, as : — 

Ku sangere ruwe ne, I cause to send down. 

A-en sangere ruwe ne, I was caused to be sent*down. 

Wakka a-tare, he was caused to draw water. 

Section 5. — Miscellaneous. 

163. — Some verbs may be made reflexive by prefixing the wordj'tf/, "self," to them. 
This again may, in cases where it is necessary to express emphasis or make a sentence 
more clear, be preceded by the word yaikoia, which means oneself ; e.g. : — 

Yai-kik or yaikota yai-kik, to strike oneself. 
Yai-eoripakka or yaikota yai-eoripakka, to humble oneself. 
Yai-raige or yaikota yai-raige, to kill oneself ; to commit suicide. 
Yai-tui or yaikota yai-tui, to cut oneself. 

164. — The following list contains a few reflexive verbs : — 

Yaierampoken, to be disappointed. 
Yaietokooiki, to prepare oneself. 
Yaiirawere, to covet. 
Yaikahotanu, to be suspicious. 
Yaikannekara, to reform oneself. 
Yaikatakara, to long for. 
Yaikatande, to refresh oneself. 
Yaikeukoro, to be nearly killed. 
Yaikeumshu, to be in very great 

trouble, to be at death s door. 
Yaikisakisa, to shake oneself. 
Yaikoibe, to be greedy. 
Yaikoirushka, to be sad. 
Yaikokatpak, to repent. 
Yaikopak, to be sorry for. 

Yaimonekote, to die by accident. 

Yainenncnu, to pick the head. 

Yainu, to think. 

Yaiparoiki, to labour alone for a liveli- 

Yaipataraye, to surmise, to anticipate, to 

Yaipaye, to confess. 

Yaipuni, to deride. 

Yaipushi, to confess. 

Yairamekote, to live a single life. 

Yairamekolpa, to live a married life. 

Yairamkopashte, to be clever. 

Yaisamge, to be unmixed. 

Yaisambepokash, to be down-hearted. 

Digitized by 



Yaikopuni, to be selfish. 
Yaikoshiramshui, to consider. 
Yaikoshiromare, to be careful of, to be 

Yaikowepekere, to feel remorse. 
Yaikush, to be ashamed. 
Yaioitaksakte, to condemn oneself. 
Yaiotupekari, to save up, to be careful 


Yaiesanniyo, to be persevering or in- 

Yaishinnaire, to set by itself. 

Yaieshinniukesh, to be unable or in- 

Yaitunashka, to hurry oneself. 

Yaiuitek or yaiuntak, to go to reHcve 

Yaiwairu, to err, to transgress. 

165. — The words uko, uwe, prefixed to some verbs indicate mutuality; thus: — 


Ukocharange, to argue. 

Ukoheraye, to resemble one another. 

Ukoirushka, to be angry with one 

Ukoiyohaikara, many to speak evil of 
one. • 

Ukokoiki, many to fight one. 

Ukooman, to visit one another. 

Ukopahaunu, to hold intercommunica- 

Ukopoye, to stir, to mix. 

Ukopoyekai, to visit one another. 

Ukorampoktuye, many to neglect one. 

Ukoramkoro, to hold counsel. 

Ukoshuwama, a quarrel between hus- 
band and wife. 

Ukotereke, to wrestle. 

Ukotukka, to close. 


Uwechutko, to differ from one another. 
Uwekarange, to draw near or approach 

one another. 
Uwekarapa, to congregate, to assemble. 
Uwekatairotke, to love one another. 
Uwekikkik, to knock together. 
Uwekokandama, to deceive one another. 
Uwekuchikanna, to be double-faced. 
Uwenltomom, to look at one another. 
Uwepekere, to converse together. 
Uweshlkarun, to desire to meet one 

Uweshinnai, to be different from one 

Uweshinneatki, to be of the same mind. 
Uwetunangara, to meet. 
Uwetushmak, to race. 
Uweyairamikashure, to strive for the 


166. — ^Thoroughness of action may be expressed by placing the word oara, or /o/io, 
before some verbs j e.g. : — 


Oan-raige, to kill outright, 
Oara-erampeutek, not to understand at 

Oara-paye, quite gone. 
Oara-pereba, to cleave through. 
Oat-tuye, to cut through. 


Toiko-kik, to hit hard. 

Toiko-otereke, thoroughly to trample 

. under. 

Toiko-otke, to prick severely. 

Toiko-wende, to render quite useless. 

Toiko-kira, to run quite away. 

[N.B. — Notice in the two words oan-raige and oat-tuye, the change of ra into n before the letter 

r, and iiUo t before ^] 

167. — ^Verbs, by taking the word iafte or ioro after them, are thereby changed into 
adverbs, e.g. :— 

Digitized by 



Kik-kane, whilst striking. Mina-kane, whilst laughing. 

Kira-kane, whilst running away. Oman-kane, whilst going. 

Kik koro, whilst striking. Tapkara koro, whilst dancing. 

Nina koro, whilst carrying wood Ye koro, whilst telling. 

1 68.— Many nouns are turned into verbs by taking kara or koro after them, 
following are a few examples : — 

(Karay to do.) 



Ikiri, a seam. 

Attush, Ainu cloth. 

Chisei, a house. 

Chokchokse, a kiss. 

Omke, a cold. 

Pakari, a measure. 

Po, a child. 

Raichish, lamentation for the dead. 

Toi, a garden. 

Tushiri, a grave. 


Hau, the voice. 
Iloni, the stomach. 
Kaya, a sail. 
Kut, a belt, a girdle. 
Nok, an Q%g. 
Onne, oldness. 
Puma, wages. 
Rupne, maturity. 
Tashum, sickness. 
Urai, a fish-trap. 


Ikiri-kara, to stew. 
Attush-kara, to weave. 
Chisei-kara, to build. 
Chokchokse-kara, to kiss. 
Omke-kara, to take cold. 
Pakari-kara, to measure. 
Po-ne-kara, to adopt. 
Raich ish-kara, to weep for the dead. 
Toi-kara, to work in a garden. 
Tushiri-kara, to bury. 

(Koro J to possess,) 


Hau-koro, to crow. 
Hon-koro, to conceive. 
Kaya-koro, to set sail. 
Kut-koro, to gird up. 
Nok-koro, to lay eggs. 
Onne-koro, to grow old. 
Puma-koro, to receive wages. 
Rupne-koro, to be full grown. 
Tashum-koro, to be sick. 
Urai-koro, to trap fish. 



169. — Some adverbs are merely adjectives followed by the particle no ; e.g. : — 


Ashiri, new. 
Hoshike, previous. 
Oupeka, upright. 
Pirika, good. 
Pon, little, small. 
Ramu an, wise. 
Son, true. 
Tuima, far. 
Tunashi, quick. 


Ash in no, newly. 
Hoshike no, previously. 
Oupeka no, uprightly. 
Pirika no, well. 
Pon no, a few, a little. 
Ramu an no, wisely. 
Son no, truly 
Tuima no, far. 
Tunashi no, quickly. 

Digitized by 



170. — Many verbs may be turned into adverbs or adverbial phrases by placing the 
word kane after them ; thus : — 


Apkash, to walk. Apkash kane, whilst walking. 

Arapa, to go. Arapa kane, whilst going. 

E, to eat. E kane, whilst eating. 

Mina, to laugh. Mina kane, whilst laughing. 

Tapkara, to dance. Tapkara kane, whilst dancing, 

Uk, to take. -Uk kane, whilst taking. 

Yan, to go up. Yan kane, whilst going up. 

171. — ^\''erbs may also be changed into adverbial phrases by putting the word i(?/'(? 
after them ; thus : — 

Verbs. Adverbs. 

Ahun, to enter. Ahun koro, when or whilst entering. 

Iku, to drink. Iku koro, when or whilst drinking. 

Iwange, to use. Iwange koro, when or whilst using. 

Ki, to do. Ki koro, when or whilst doing. 

Maushok, to yawn. Maushok koro, when or whilst yawning. 

Ohare, to empty. Ohare koro, when or whilst emptying. 

172. — The following are some adverbs of time : — 

Hembara ne yakka, at any time ; always. Okakela, afterwards. 

Hoshike numan, the day before yesterday. Oyashim, the day after to-morrow. 

Ila, when {idative), Oyashimshimge, the day following the 

Kanna kanna, often, again and again. day after to-morrow. 

Kanna shui, again. Ramma, always. 

Kesto, daily. Rapoketa, whilst. 

Kesto kesto, daily, every day. Shiro onuman, evening. 

Nei orota, then. Tane, now. 

Ne ita, then. Tanto, to-day. 

Nishatta, to-morrow. Teeda, in ancient times. 

Numani, yesterday. Teoro, henceforth. 

Numani onuman, last night. 

173. — ^The following are some adverbs of place: — 

Choropoketa, beneath. Ne ita ne yakka, anywhere, everywhere. 

Hange, near. Oshiketa, inside, 

Hangeko, far. Oshimaki, behind. 

Herikashi, upwards. Rikta, above. 

Horikashi, downwards. Samata, beside. 

Ikushta, beyond. * Teda, here {at this place), 

Koehange, near. Tepeka, here {this side), 

Kotchakila, in front of. Toada, there {at that place), 

Kushla, yonder. Topeka. there {that side), 

Na an un ne yakka, everywhere, anywhere. 

[N.B.] — The termination ta, which is seen in so many adverbs, is in reality a post- 
position meaning ** in,*' ** to," or ** at." (See No, 2^6.) 

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i74« — ^The following are a few adverbs of degree : — 

Ebitta, all, every. Ouse, only. 

Mashkin no, too much. Pakno, sufficient, as far as. 

Naa, more yet. Patek, only, all. 

Nani-hungo, almost. Poro-seruge, for the most part. 

Nimara, half, Ukotamge, about. 

Obitta, all, the whole. Upakno, sufficient, as far as. 

175. — The following are adverbs of manner: — 

Arikinne, positively. Oheuge sak no, rightly. 

Eyam no, carefully. Ratchi-tara wa, peaceably. 

Hetopa-hetopa, backwards and forwards. Shine ikinne, unitedly. 

Inne no, in crowds. Shinen shinen ne, singly. 

Keutum atte no, with a fixed purpose. Shiwende, slowly (used of walking), 

Kuttoku, upside down. Ukoiram no, conjointly. 

Ne no, thus. ^ Utura no, together. 

Nitanne, fast (used only of walking), Uwatte no, in multitudes. 

176. — ^The following are some adverbs of interrogation : — 

Hemanda gusu, why ? Nakwe, whence ? 

Hcmbara, when ? Nei pakno, how far ? 

Hempak, how much, how many ? Nekon a, how ? what kind ? 

Hunakta, where ? Nep gusu, why ? 

Hunak un, whither ? Nep pakno, how much ? 
Ine, whither ? 

177. — ^The following are the adverbs of affirmation : — 

E, yes (locally "a"). • Ruwe, yes. 

Ohaine, just so, so it is. Ruwe un, yes. 

Yak'un, yes. 

178. — Negation is expressed by the following words : — 

Erampeutek, not to understand. Seenne, no, not. 

Eramushkare, not to understand. Shomo, no, not. 

Isam, not to be. Uwa, not to know. 

1 79. — The following expressions should be noted : — 

Naa shomo, not yet, 
. Hembara ne yakka shomo, never. 
Ramma shomo, never. 

180. — Questions are often asked with the particle he and the verb an^ *' to be ;" e.g. 

Hunak un e arapa ruwe he an ? Where are you going ? 
Nep gusu ariki ruwe he an ? Why has he come t 

181. — Questions may also be asked by means of the particle a orya. A is more 

polite than J' J : — 

E koro michi okai ya ? Is your father at home ? 

E Oman a } Have you been ? 

Nekon a a-kara kunip ne ? What ought I to do ? 

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182. — Very often no particle is used to express a question, the adverb itself being 
sufficient to indicate that a question is being asked. The voice is also raised, as in 
speaking English ; e.g. : — 

Nakwe ck ? Whence has he come ? Hemanda ki ? What is he doing ? 

Ine un ? Where are you going to ? Nekon a a-ye ? What is it called ? 



183. — ^The chief Ainu interjections are as follows : — 
Ainu bota ! ah me I 
Ayo ! a cry of pain. 
Ch6tara ! hurrah ! 

Eyororope ! an exclamation of pleasure. Sometimes used after a song, but es- 
pecially on the receipt of some present. 
Etu-kishima! excl. of surprise. 
Haye ! a cry of pain. 

Haye ku ramu ! excl. of surprise ; dear me ! 
Hut ! excl. of surprise or disgust. 
Irambotarare ! you noisy one ! 
Iramshitnere I fidgetty ! restless ! 
Ishirikurantere ! well I never ! 
Isenramte ! at it again ! 

Kik-kik! excl. of surprise. Used only by women. 
Parasekoro! hurrah! 
Wooi! a call for help when in distress. 

184. — The words for ** thank you " are : — 

Hap-hap or hap, used only by women and girls. 
Yai-iraigere, used only by men and boys. 

THE VOWELS A, E, I, O, and U. 

185. — It has been thought advisable to treat the particles a, e, /, and u separately, 
because their meanings differ very widely according as they are used as prefixes or 

186. — The student need scarcely be warned against confounding, for instance, the / 
which is used as a suffix to turn verbs into abstract substantives wiih the / which is prefixed 
to verbs to intensify their meaning, or the e meaning **you" with the e meaning "to." 
Eiymologically, no doubt, such words are quite distinct ; but, for practical purposes, the 
several usages of each particle may best be treated under a single heading. 

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Section i. — ^The Vowel "A." 

A is very extensively used as a particle, and has a variety of meanings. 

187. — ^yhen prefixed to verbs in general, a has a passive signification; e.g.: — 


Nu, to hear. A-nu, to be heard, 

Nuye, to write. A-nuye, to be written. 

Raige, to kill. A-raige, to be killed. See No, 26J {a). 

188. — When prefixed to the verl) koro, *' to possess," a and koro combined express 
the possessive plural of the first personal pronoun ; thus : — 

Akoro michi, our father. Akon nishpa, our master, 

Akoro ekashi, our ancestors. Akorope, our things, 

189. — Sometimes, however, akoro is used as the second person singular of the 
possessive pronoun. 

It is considered to be a very polite mode of expression ; thus : — 

Akoro michi may stand for e koro michi, your father, and akoro haho for e koro 
hahoy your mother, though not so commonly used ; nor is the word koro so often used 
with e as without it. Tims e koro vvichi is less often heard than e michi, and e koro habo 
than e haho. But a can never be used as a personal pronoun, whether singular or plural, 
without the addition of koro. 

189-J. — In a few rare cases the particle a is used for the 3rd person singular of the 
personal pronoun. See No, 112-a, 

190. — After verbs, the particle a often denotes interrogation ; thus : — 

E Oman a ? Have you been ? Ek a ? Has he come ? 

Shisam ne a ? Is it a Japanese ? Tan okaibe e koro pe a ? Are these things 

yours ? 

191. — Used after a verb which is spoken in answer to a question, a signifies either 
affirmation or past time ; thus : — 

E Oman a .^ Ku oman a, Have you been ? I have been. 
Ek a ? Ek a, Has he come ? he has come. 

The distinction between the two a's is indicated by the tone of voice. The second a 
is, in all probability, a corruption of an, which, added to the root form of a verb, has a 
conclusive or affirmative force. 

Section 2.— The Vowel '' E." 

The particle e is of extensive use, as the following examples will show : — 

192. — Prefixed to verbs in general, e is the second person singular of the personal 
pronoun ; e.g. : — 

E kik, you strike. E oman, you go. 

E raige, you kill. E apkash, you walk. 

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iQS.—Used with the verb ioro, *'to possess," e and koro together become the 
possessive pronoun of the second person singular ; thus : — 

E koro sapa (also e sapa), your head. 
E koro makiri (also e makiri), your knife. 

[N.B.— It is always better to drop the koroy when there is no fear of ambiguity]. 

1 94. —Prefixed to some verbs, the particle e has the power of turning an intransitive 
into a transitive ; thus : — 


Kira, to run away. Ekira, to run away with. 

Mik, to bark. Emik, to bark at. 

Mina, to laugh. Emina, to laugh at. 

195. — Similarly prefixed to certain adjectives, it gives them, so to speak, a transitive 
power ; thus : — 

Hapuru, soft. E-hapuru, unable to endure. 

Nishte, hard. ' E-nishte, able to endure. 
Pirika, good. E-pirika, bent on gain. 

Toranne, idle. E-toranne, not caring to do. 

196.— In a few cases the particle e is used as a preposition meaning ** to ;" thus : — 

Ekim ne, to the mountains (to work). 
Ekim un, to the (particular place in the) mountains. 
Epish ne, to the sea-shore (for work or business). 
Echup pok un chup ahun, the sun sets in the west. 

Section 3. — The Vowel " 1." 

The vowel /', used as a separate particle, has the following significations : — 

197. — Prefixed to some verbs, it has an intensifying power; thus : — 

Nu, to hear. Inu, to listen. 

Nukara, to see. . In'gara, to look at. 

198. — Prefixed to other verbs, /indicates the first person plural objective case : — 

I kik an, he struck us. I noshpa, they follow us. 

I kara an, he made us. I pa, they found us. 

Kikiri i-pa ko orowa i noshpa, When the insects have found us, they will follow us. 
199. — When suffixed to verbs, /'has the power to turn them into nouns; thus: — 
VERB. noun. 

Yainu, to think. Yainu-i, a thought. See Nos. jo-j^. 

200. — The particle /' has also the idea of lime and place in it ; thus : — 

Ne i pak no ne yakka, for ever. 
Ne i ta pak no ne yakka, what place soever. 
Shine an i ta, at one place (once upon a time). 

Pet otta san i ta ichaniu a-nukara. When he went down to the river, he saw a 
salmon-trout (a salmon-iroui was seen). 

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Section 4.— The Vowel '' O." 

201. — The particle 0, like e, is somelimes used as a prepoiiiion to nouns. Its signi- 
fication is ** from ;" thus : — 

Okim un, from the mountains. 

Opish ne, from the sea-shore. 

0-chupka un chup hetuku, the sun rises in the east. 

202. — When the particle is placed immediately after some nouns, it changes them 
into adjectives; e.g.: — 

Kesh chikoikip, an animal of different colours. 
Shlriki sarambe, a soft material with a pattern. 
Shiriki nonno, a variegated flower. See A'^o. jq. 

203. — When the verb tia, **to run over" (as water), is immediately preceded by 0, 
its meaning is changed, thus : — 

Ika, to run over. 

0-ika, to step or jump over. 

Nupuri o-ika, to cross mountains. 

Sakiri o-ika, to jump a fence. 

Wattesh o-ika, to step over a straw. 

Atui o-ika ingara, to look across the sea. 

Pet o-ika hotuyekara, to call to across a river. 

204. — When is used after s/iui\ " a rat-hole" or ////, ** a hole," it must be translated 
by " to make " or '* to bore ; " 

Eruni shui kor an, the rat is making a hole. 
Ainu pui kor an, the man is boring a hole. 

Section 5.— Trfa Vowel "U." 
205. — Prefixed to verbs, the particle ;/ gives the sense of mutuality; e.g.: — 

Koiki, to fight. Ukoiki, to fight one another. 

Onnere, to know. Uonnere, to know one another. 

Oshi arapa, to go behind. Uoshi paye, to go behind each other. 

Raige, to kill. Uraige, to kill one another. 

206. — For the words uio and uzve, used to indicate mutuality, see No. 165. 

206. — (a.) The vowel u does not always immediately precede the verb to which it 
refers. Thus, for Kotan oro u-kopahaunu, we sometimes hear U kotan oro kopahaunu, 
"There is mutual intercourse between the villages;" and so on. 



207. — Under the term Postposition are comprehended such words as in English are 
called Prepositions and Conjunctions. They are here given in alphabetical order, irre- 
spective of the category under which their European equivalents would be classed. As 


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will be seen, there are some words for which there are no exact English equivalents, and 
others again whose meaning varies according to the different connections in which they 
are used. It has therefore been considered advisable to give a large number of examples, 
in some cases, as illustrations. It should also be remarked that some of ihe following 
words are used before as well as after the words they govern, though most of them are 
used after only. 

208. — Aige, '* as ;" ** and so ;" '* with reference to which ;" *' thereupon;" e.g. : — 

Ku ye aige, a-en kik. As I spoke, he struck me. 

Ne-i orushpe ku ye ; aige, Ukomotte Ainu ene ilaki. I told him the news ; 

thereupon Mr. Ukomotte spoke thus. 
Usaine usaine wenkalcham koro ruwe ne, sekoro, uwepakela uwepakela ku inu ; 

aige, Mopet la san wa ne-i orushpe ku uwcpekennu. By degrees I heard 

that he had commiiled various misdemeanours ; and so I went down to 

^lopet to inquire into the matter. 
209. — Aine ; ** thereupon," ** upon which." 

Heikachi a wakka tare yakka kopan ; aine, Kamui irushka gusu, chup kamui 

samata a-ande ruwe ne. The lad even disliked to be made to draw 

water ; thereupon, the gods being angry, they placed him in the side of the 

Rai, aine, utare obitta chish ruwe ne na. He died, upon which the Ainu all 


210. — Anak, anakne; *'as regards," ** in reference to." 

These particles serve to isolate a word or sentence, and to give emphasis to a subject. 
When both anak and anakne are used in the same sentence, anak is more emphatic than 
anakne, Anakne, however, when standing alone, need not always be translated : — 

Chikap anakne chikuni ka ren. The bird settles upon a tree. 
Otteeda anakne seta reep iporose. In ancient times dogs were called reep. 
Amam an, chep anakne an, yuk kam anak pon no ka isam ruwe ne. There is 
vegetable food and there is fish ; but as for venison, there is none at all. 

2\i,—Ankoy ankoro; '*when" (if). 

An is the substantive verb " to be," and ho is a contraction of koro, which means " to 

Chikap ren anko ku lukan. I will shoot the bird when (if) it settles. 
Ru hotom'ta reushi anko a-ep oro omarep, a vessel in which to put food (for) 
when one stays (to rest) on the road. 

212. — Ant {locally art) ; " with," " by means of ; " *' taking." 

The word ant is a compound, whose parts are an ** to be," and the particle /' {see 
Chapter /A'., Section 3). In many places ant is corrupted into art, so that, generally 
speaking, it matters little which form of the word is used : — 

Ai ani (ari) yuk raige ruwe ne. He kills deer with arrows. 
Kuwa ani (ari) apkash. He walks by means of a stick. 

Orowa, pishako niwatush ani wa pet otta san ruwe ne. And taking the ladle 
and bucket, he went down to the river. 

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213. — Aiva (^a pasl passive pari icipli) ; "being." 

Wherever the particle aiva is used, past time is signified. It appears to be the 
passive participle of the verb *' to be." It is always used conjunclively : — 

Pana ta kotan un san ita, Ainu tunangara, awa, otta ene ilaki. When he went 
down to the lower village, he met an Ainu, and spoke thus to him. (Lit. 
When he went doivfiy an Ainu being inct^ he spoke thus to him!) 

Tecda ne yakka usa-pirikamiambe a-satke ruwe ne, awa, ikka-guru ikka wa isam. 
So formerly, when we hung out our wearing apparel to air, a thief stole it. 
(Lit. In ancient times atso various good clothing being hung out to air, a 
thief stole them.') 

li^.— Chiki; "if." 

Ku arapa chiki, cchi nure ash na. I will let you know if I go. 
Ki chiki, pirika ruwe ne. It will be well if you do it. 

215. — Choropoky choropok-iy choropok-i-ta, choropok un ; "under," " beneath." 

The particles /', /j, and //;/, which are here used with choropoky have a locative sense 
in them. Either of them therefore has the power to turn the postposition choropok intopn 
adverb of place. (^For " ta " and " un " see beloWy and for the particle " /" see Chapter 
IX., Section j). 

Set choropok, under the seat. 
Shuop choropoki, the place under the box. 
Chikuni choropokita, beneath the tree. 
I\Iun choropok un, under the grass. 

215 (a). — Ekopash ; " against," " leaning against. ' 

Tuman ekopash kina, the mat against the wall. 

En ekopash, against me. 

Ikushpe ekopash ainu, the man leaning against the post. 

2x6.— Ene; "thus," "so," " this or that kind, ♦ "such." 
En ot!a ene hawashi. He spoke thus to me. 
Ene okaibe isam. There is no such kind of thing. 
Teeda ne yakka ene shiri ki. It was also so done formerly. 

217. — Enkay enkapekay enkata ; "over," "above." 

The word enka means " over," " above ; " enkapekay " the place above," and en- 
kata, "at the place above." Peka, like /a, is an adverbial particle; it means "place" 
or " side : * — 

En enka ; over me. 

Atui enkapeka chikap hoyupu. A bird is flying over the sea. 

Pet enkata chikap an. There is a bird over the river. 

218. — Hekota; "facing," "towards." 

En hekota ; facing me. 

Chisei hekota hosare wa ingara; tJ look towards the house. 

Ekeshne hekota hosare ; to look about from place to place. 

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Alui orun hekota hosare ; to face the sea. 

Nai hekola apkash, to walk towards the stream. 

219. — Hemhem; "and." Heinhem ... hemhem ; "both ... and." 

The word hemhem may be used either once or twice in a sentence. When used but 
once, it equals the conjunction **and;" when used twice, it means "both ... and;" thus: — 

Tanibe hemhem neiambe ; this and that. 

Tambe hemhem, neiambe liemhem ; both this and that. 

220. — Hene ; "and " Hene ... hene ; both ... and." 

Hcne and hene ... hene, have the same meaning as hemhem ... hemhem, and are 
used in the same way ; thus : — 

Aplo hene urara ; rain and fog. 

Seta hene, chironnup hene ; both dogs and foxes. 

221. — Hike ; "as regards," " in reference to." 

This word is only suffixed to verbs ; thus : — 

Ku nukar' hike ; in reference to what I see. 
Ku inu hike ; as regards what I hear. 

222. — Ikushta ; "beyond" {a long way off). 

The particle /, which is here used before kushia, is an intensifier. Thus, ikushta 
means "a long way off"; — 

Pet ikushta, beyond the river {hut far from it). 
Pet kushta, beyond the river {but near it), 

223. — Imakake, imakaketa ; "then," "after that." 

Aige, imakaketa arapa wa ye ruwe ne. So after that he went and told him. 
Orowa, imakake, pet otla san ruwe ne na. And afterwards he went down to tjie 

224.— /;/f, " ... ing," "when," ** being." 

The word ine has a participial force and always follows a verb ; thus : — 

Orowa, kira-ine paspas kara guru orota arapa. And, running away, he went to 

a charcoal-burner. 
Ariki-ine shirikap eshirikoolke. When they came, they speared a sword-fish. 

225.— A'^; "even." Ka ... ka, "both ... and ;" " neither ... nor." 

Ka, when used only once, means " even." When used twice v iih an affirmative 
verb, the two ka's mean " both ... and ;" but when used with a negative, 
they mean " neither ... nor ;" thus : — 

Chiramantep isam, yuk ka isam. There are no bears (or) even deer. 
Ep ka isam, amip ka isam. There is neither food nor clothing. 
Chep ka an, amam ka an. There is both fish and vegetable food. 

226. — Ka ; kata; " top," " upon the top." 
Pira ka ; the top of a cliff. 
Chisei kata ; on the top of the house. 
Shiri kata ; on the ground. 

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227. — Kashi, kashike, kashikeia^ kashike-peia, kashikeketa ; **ovcr/' **upon." 
Kashi and kashike mean " over," ** above ;" kashike-peka means '* ihe place above;*' 
kdshikekeia and kashiketa mean " at the place above ;" •' upon": — 

E kasbi or e kashike. Over you. 

Atui kashikepeka kopecha hoyupu wa okai. The wild ducks are flying over the 

Chisei kashiketa paskuru at. There are some crows upon the house. 

22%,— Ko, koro; "if,'* **when," "whilst." 

The word ho is probably a corruption or contraction of the verb koroy " to possess." 
Arapa ko wen. It will be bad if you go. 
Arapa koro hachiri. He tumbled as he went. 

When the verb koro is used as an auxiliary to other verbs, it signifies that the action 
is still going on ; thus : — 

A-ki kor an. It is being done. 

229.— A"w;//V " likely," " probably." 

The word if w;// seems to express "likelihood," "probability," and "purpose;" thus: — 

Ek kuni aramu. He is likely to come (lit. it is to be considered (that) he will 
come) . 

Ku iku kuni tambako. The tobacco for me to smoke. 

Ek kuni ku ye. I told him to come. 

230. — Kufn\ gtisu; "in order that," " in order to," "so that." 

Nu kuni gusu ek. Come in order to hear. 
A-ki kuni gusu ye. Command that it be done. 
Iteki soine kuni gusu kara yan. Make it so that they do not get out. 
Iteki a-en kik kuni gusu ye wa en kore. Please ask him not to strike me (lit. 
please speak to him that I be not struck), 

2ii.—Kushta ; " beyond," " yonder," {but not far off). See No, 222, 

To kushta. Beyond the lake {but near it), 
Kushta an. It is yonder. 

232. — Kusu or gusu ; ne gusu ; " because," " as," " to the effect that," " to." 

After a verb kusu or gusu, but after a noun ne gusu : — 

A-hotuyekara gusu ek. He came because he was called. 

Kuani Ainu ne gusu ku erampeutek. As I am an Ainu, I do not understand it. 

Wakka atare gusu aye yakka etoranne. Though told to draw water, still he was 

idle. (Lit. Though it was said that water was to be drawn^ he zvas idle 

at it,) 
Ku etutkopak gusu, orola ku arapa. I shall go to bid him farewell. 

2'^y—Newa; "and." Newa ... newa ; "and." Neiva ... kane ; "both ... and." 

Humirui newa kopecha an. There is a grouse and a wild-duck. 
Tokap newa, kunne newa. Both day and night. 

Itunnap newa soyai kane shi no yai-sanniyop ne ruwe ne. Both ants and4>ees 
are very prudent creatures. 

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2'^\,—Neyakka; "even," "and." Ne yakka ... ne yakka ; "both ... and." 

After nouns always ne yakka, but after verbs yakka. 

In an affirmative sentence ne yakka ... ne yakka, ox yakka ... yakka mean "both ... 
and;" but in a negative "neither ... nor," and " whether ... or;" thus : — 

Kuani ne yakka tambe ki eashkai. Even I can do this. 

Eani ne yakka kuani ne yakka. Both you and I. 

Tambe ne yakka nei ambe neyakka shomo. Neither this nor that. 

Apkash yakka, umma o yakka. Whether I walk or ride. 

235. — Okake, okake an ko, okake/a; "after," " afterwards," " by and by." 

Arapa, okake rai. He went, afterwards he died. 

Rai, okake an ko, tushiii otta a-omare. He died, afterwards he was buried. 

Okaketa ku ek na. I will come by and by. 

2^6,— Okari; "around." 

To okari ; around the lake. 
Kotan okari ; around the village. 

2^7,— Oro; "in," "upon." 

Oro ahunge ; put it in. 

Aep oro omarep ; a vessel to put food in. 

Amip oro omare kuma ; a pole to hang clothes upon. 

2^S.—Oro/a,orun,o//a; "to," "into," " to which," "to this," " in which," "by." 
The word o//a is a contraction of orofa. 

Puyara otta shirikush. To pass by a window. 

Pet orota (o//a) san. He has gone down to the river. 

Shu orota {pita) wakka an. There is water in the pot. 

Chisei orun ahun. He has gone into the house. 

Orota {olta) ene itak. To which (to this) he spoke thus. 

Ota-taiki otta okai shui. Holes in which sand-flies live. 

Otta ahun ushike isam. There is no place in which to go. 

The following peculiar use of otia, as expressing " purpose," should be carefully 
noted : — 

Amip a-satke otta a-iwange. It is used tor drying clothes. 

Chep a-satke otta neyakka a-iwange. It is also used for drying fish. 

239. — Orowa ; " and," " then." Oroiva no ; " from," " by," " after." 

Orowa ene itaki. And thus he spoke. 
Ene itaki, orowa paye. They spoke so, then went away. 
Ye orowa no kira. After he told us, he ran away. 
Nishpa orowa no akik. He was struck by the master. 

240. — Oshike, Oshiketa] " the inside," "inside." 
Chip oshike. The inside of- a boat. 
Chisei oshiketa okai. They are inside the house. 

241 — P<^fi >^o ; sufficient," " enough," " until " (the extreme limits). 

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Pak no ku e na. I have eaten enough. 

Ek pak no ku lerc. I will wait till he comes. 

Atui pa pak no atui gesh pak no ; nioshiri pa pak no moshiri gesh pak no. 
From one end of the sea to the other ; from one end of the world to the 
other. (^A phrase meaning '' ihe ivhole world over"), 

2^2,— Raia ; ** below." 

Kando rikta an, shiri rata an. Heaven is above and earth is below. 

243. — Ri\ rikta, rikpeka ; '* high," " above." 

7?/, means "high ; " rikpeka, " the place above," and rikta, ** at the place above "; 

thus : — 

Chikap ri ne. The bird is high. 

Paskuru rikpeka hoyopu. The crow flies in the heights above. 

Rikta an. It is above. 

244. — Sama, samakcta^ samaia ; ''beside," "by the side of," "before" {in the 
Sight of). 

Pet sama, beside the river. 

Ap.i samaketa okai ikushpe ; the posts by the side of the doorway. 

Kamui tek samata; before God. (Lit. by the side 0/ the hand of God,) 

245. — Shirikaia ; this word properly means " upon the oarlh," but it is very often 
used for, " below " or " beneath," instead of rata ; dius : — 

Kando rikta an, moshiri shirikata an. Heaven is above, the earth is beneath. 
246.— 7a; " to," " at," " in." 

Mopet ta san. He is going to Mopet. 
Chisei ta okai ; they are in the house. 
Shine an ta ; at one place. 

247. — Tumugeta ttimuta ; "amongst." 
Chikuni tumugeta ; amongst trees. Mun tumula ; amongst the grass. 

248.— T;/ ; " in," " to," " towards." 

The postposition //;/ is of very extensive use, and has a great variety of meanings. 
Its use as a locative particle should be particularly noted. 

Chisei un ; in the house. Ova moshir'un guru ; a foreigner. 

Uni un ku arapa ; I am going home. Kim un ; to the mountains. 

Te un ; here. Kim un kamui; the god of the mountains. 

Eani un ; you. Rep un kamui ; the god of the sea. 

Kuani un ; I. Paro un guru ; a man of mouth (i.e. eloquent). 

249. — Uturu, Uturugetay TV// r^/j ;" between," "among." 

Ikushpe uturugeta ; between the posts. 
Nupuri uturuta, among the mountains. 

250.— FFj.; "and." 

The present participle of an " to be ;" used also as a copulative : — 
Koro wa ek. Bring it, take and come. (Lit. possessing come,) 
Arapa wa uk. Go and fetch it. (Lit. going, take it,) 

Digitized by 



251. — IVa no ; we ; from. 

The word we is only beard in the folloNving sentence N'ak ive ek ? "Where have you 
come from ?" But wano is very often used ; thus : — 

Sara wa no ku ek. I came from Sara. 

Nupuri wa no sap. We came down from the mountains. 

252.— -K^; "whether/* "or." 

Ek ya shomo ya ? Will he come or not*. 

Ki ya shomo ya, ku erampcutek. I do not know whether he has done it or not. 

253. — Vakyyak atiak,yak^anakne,yakka, yakun ; " if," •' though," "in case," "by." 

Arapa yak pirika, he may go. (Lit., /'/ is good if he goes.) 
Arapa yak anak ne, if upon his going, or, if when he goes. 
Ki yak ka, though he does it. 

Uwe-pekennu yak un, in the case of his making inquiry. 

Tunashi no sara etaye yak nishpa ne rusui. By quickly drawing in his tail he 
thought to become rich. 


In speaking the Ainu, language, the following rules are to be observed : — 

254. — The subject of the verb is always placed at the beginning of the sentence, the 
verb itself at the enJ, and the object immediately before the verb ; thus : — 

Ainu ek. An ainu is coming. 
Moyuk raige. He killed a badger. 
Heikachi umma 0. The lad is riding a horse. 

255. — The genitive always precedes^the word it defines ; thus : — 

Ku makiri ; my knife. 
Chikoro uni ; our home. 
Chiramantep maratlo; a bear's ear. 
Seta nimaki ; the dog's teeth. 

256. — Adjectives are used cither attributively or predicatively. 

{a.) — When used attributively, an adjective is placed before the noun it qualifies; 

thus: — 

Atonite chisei; a beautiful house. 

Wen guru ; a bad person, a poor person. 

(b.) — When an adjective is used predicatively, it is placed after the noun, and is ilself 
followed by the verb "to be ;" thus : — 

Nonno eramasu ne. It is a pretty flower. 

Seta nimaki tanne ne. The dog's teeth are long. 

257.— Very often, particularly when the word ajiaknc is used, the noun is mentioned 
tvice, once with and once without the adjective ; thus ; — 

Digitized by 



Toi anakne pirika toi ne. It is a good garden, or the garden is a good one. 

(Lit. as for the garden^ it is a good one,) 
Umma anakne nitan umma ne. It is a swift horse, or the horse is a swift one. 

258. — The pronouns are very much used in speaking Ainu, and sometimes occur 
twice or even thrice in one short sentence ; thus : — 

Kuani Ainu ku ne. I am an Ainu. 
Kuani ku arapa wa ku ye. I will go and tell him. 
Aokai e meraige ya. Are you cold ? 
259.— Prepositions are usually placed after the words they govern and are therefore, 
in this work, called postpositions ; thus : — 

Uni un arapa. He is going home. 

Chisei orun ahun. To enter a house. 

Kama otta wakka omare. Put some water in the kettle. 

Endo kolan orowa no ek. He came from Tokyo. 

(a), — -Real exceptions to this rule will be found in the particles e and 0, (See A^os» 
rg6 and 206.) 

(d). — Apparent exceptions will often be heard in the words <?//j, "to,'' and oro, 
" in ;" thus :— 

Otta ene itaki. To which he said. 

Otta okai shui. Holes in which they dwell. 

Oro omare. To bring in, or, to put in. 

These exceptions are not real ; for the subject to which these postpositions refer, 
though not expressed, is always understood. 0//a should therefore, in such sentences 
as those given above, always be translated by some such phrase as — " in which," " lo 
which," "to it," "to that," or "this." Oro always means "in" or "upon." (See 
also No, 208,) 

260. — The adverb always precedes the verb : — 

Tunashi no ye. Say it quickly. 
Na a moire oman. Go more slowly. 

261. — Conjunctions are placed at the end of the clause to which they belong; thus : — 
Shiyeye an gusu, tane ku hoshipi. I am now returning because I am sick. 
Nislipa ikashpaoltc chiki, ku ki. I will do it if the master commands. 

262. — A conjunctive clause ending in gtisu may be j)laced at the end of a sentence ; 
thus : — 

Tane ku hoshipi, shiyeye an gusu ne na. I am now returning because I am sick. 
263. — The common conjunction "and " is expressed by the particle wa ; thus: — 
Ek wa ibe. Come and eat. (See No, 250.) 

264. — Interrogative adverbs arc placed at the beginning, and interrogative particles at 
the end of a sentence ; thus : — 

Hembara pakno teda e-shiroma ruwe he an ? How long shall you stay here ? 
Nep ye ya ? What did he say ? 


Digitized by 



265. — All dependent clauses and participial phrases precede the chief verb ; thus : — 

Orowa, niwalush anipet otta san wa wakka ta. And taking the bucl^et, he went 

down to the river and fetched water. 

266. — The following construction with the negative verb isamy '* // is not," should 

be carefully noted. It helps to form a phrase, of which the English equivalent is not 

negative but affirmative ; thus :— 

Ikka guru ikka wa isam. A thief stole it away. 
Arapa wa isam. He is gone, also, he is dead. 
A-e wa isam. It is all eaten. 
267. — As a rule, the Ainu are very fond of using the passive forms of verbs where one 
would expect to find the active voice, thus : — 

Pet otta san wa chep anukara. Going down to the river he saw a fish. (lit. 

going doivn io the river y a fish was seen.) 
Umma a-o wa oman. He went on a horse, (lit. he ivenf, a horse being ridden.) 
Chep asatke otta neyakka a-iwange. It is also used for drying fish. (lit. /"/ is 

also used /or fish to be dried. y 
(For the use of otta^ See 238.) 

267 {a). — The passive particle a is not, in every case, immediately prefixed to the 
verb to which it belongs ; e.g. 

A-wakka tare yakka kopan. He disliked even to draw water. 
The a really belongs to tare ; thus, Wakka atare yakka kopan, is quite as cor- 
rect as, a-wakka tare yakka kopan, and either may be used. 
In compound passive verbs, the particle a is placed in the middle; thus: — 
Kashiobiuki, to save. 
Kashi-a-obiuki, to be saved. 

^68. — A polite way of asking for things is with en korc ; thus : — 

Wakka en kore. Please give me some water. 
Ye wa en kore. Please tell me. 

269. — In prayer the following peculiar idiom is often heard. 

Nekon ka newa en kore wa un kore. Please give us. (Lit. please giving 

vie give us.) 

270. — The following tale of the ** Man in the IMoon," with an Ainu explanation, is 
here given as a practical illustration of the foregoing grammar. 


Otdeeta anakne ona itak unu itak shomo nu, a wakka tare yakka kopan, aine, kamui 
irushka gusu, chup-karaui samata a-ande, moshir' cbilta a-upakashinu gusu an gun'ne. 
Chup crush gun*ne. Tambe gusu shinrit itak wen yakka pirika yakka a-nup ne na. 
Tambe neyakka utar' obilta nu yan. 

271. — Itak pita kalu. 

Wakka a-tare gusu a-ye yakka etoranne. Orowa, inumbe nolakup ari tata. Orowa, 
soineko apa samaketa okai ikushbe, nei-ambe neyakka, taugi taugi wa, **Ainubata! 

Digitized by 


ikushbe ne gusu shomo wakka la ruwe okai !" Orowa, pishako niwatush ani wa pet otta 
san; — pet otta san ita shupun cheppo hemesu nukara, awa, oUa ene itaki, '* Ainu bata ! 
shupun ne gusu, toi pone op, wen pone op, shomo wakka ta ruwe okai/* Orowa shui, 
ichaniu chep nukara, *'Toi mimi pene, wenmimipene, Ainu bala! shomo wakka la ruwe 
okai." Orowa, imakaketa san ko kamui chep nukara, awa, " Kamui chep kamui, iyan- 
garapte iyangarapte !" Orowa, nani chep kamui orowa a-uk ruwe ne. Chep kamui 
orowa a-uk wa, nani chup otta a-ande ruwe ne. Tane wakka ta etoranne guru kamui 
irushka ko anakne ene akari tapan na. 

272. — Translation of 270. — The Story of the Man in the Moon. 

In ancient times there was a lad who would neither obey his father nor his mother, 
and who even disliked to fetch water; so, the gods being angry, they put him in the side 
of the moon as a warning to all people. This is the man in the moon. For this 
reason, let all the world understand that the words of parents, whether they be good or 
evil, must be obeyed. 

273. — Translation of 271.— Explanation of the Tale. 

Through the lad was ordered to draw water he was idle, and sat chopping the fire- 
place with an edged tool. As he went out, he beat the door-post, saying — "Ah me! 
you, being a door-post, do not have to draw water! " Then, taking the laddie and the 
bucket, he went down to the river ;-— and, when he came to the river, he saw a little shupun 
fish coming up stream, to which he said, ** Ah me! because you— you awfully bony 
creature— are a fish, you do not have to draw water! " Again, seeing a salmon-trout, he 
said, "Ah me! you soft, flabby creature, you do not have to draw water." Then, de- 
scending thence, he saw an autumn salmon, to which he said—" How do you do, how do 
you do, Mr. Salmon ;" and straightway he was seized by the salmon, and, for the instruc- 
tion of all people, was placed in the moon. Thus do the angry gods to those who dislike 
to draw water. 

274. — Remarks on and explanations of 270. 

Chup, "a luminary." Oi'ush short for ^r^ ush, (lit. " in)," almost equal to orota 
an, " to be in ;" (see 61, (^2). Guru, " person." Orushpe, " news," " a tale." 

Oidella, "very anciently." Anakne, a particle used to isolate or emphasize a word 
or phrase (see 210). Ona-unu, " father "-" mother." liak, "words." Shomo nu, 
" not to hear " (see 147 a.) ^, a passive particle; the a really belongs to tare, but some- 
times this particle is taken away from its verb and placed before a noun, as here (see267 
a), Wakka, " water." Tare, causative of ta, " to draw " (see 160 e.), Fakka, " even" 
(see 253). A'c^/j;/, " to dislike." Aine,*' so;'' (see 209). Kaviui, "the gods;" any- 
thing great or awful or good. Irushka, " to be angry." Gusu, " because " (see 232). 
Chup'kamui, "the sun" or "moon;" 6'tfwj/c7, "beside" (see 244). u4w"tobe." Ande, 
" to put," " to place " (see 159). A-ande, "to be placed." Moshi'r] short for moshiri) 
the final /* is dropped because of the following e. Moshiri, "the world," "an island ;'' ehiiia, 
" in the whole," "the whole." Moshirehitta, phrase meaning " the whole of mankind." 
Upakashinu, " to instruct," "to warn." Gunne, short for guru ne (see 7). Tambe 
gusu, "therefore." Shinrit, "roots" "ancestors." Wen, "bad." Pirika, "good/' 
Vakka,,.yakka, " whether— or." Anup, "a thing to be obeyed" or "heard " (see 37); 

Digitized by 



Ne, "to be." Na, conclusive particle. Tamhe, *' this." Neyakka, ** also," "even." 
Utarohitta^ short for utara oh ilia, " all men." Van, imperative particle (see 143). 
275. — Remarks on and explanations of 271. 

It'ak, " a word," " a speech ;" here, " the tale." Pila, " to untie " " to loosen," " to 
explain." Z^:;///, " method," ** form " (see 42). A-iare, "to be caused to draw." A- 
ye, " to be told," " to be said." Etorannc, transitive of loraniu, " to be idle ; thus : — 
Wakka a-tare gusu a-ye yakka etoranne, though it was said that water was to be 
drawn, he was idle (he was idle at it). Note the passives (see 267). Orowa, *'and," 
" then." Iniimbey the pieces of wood round a fire-place. Noialiupy any "edged tool." 
.<4r/, " with " (see 212). Tata "to hack." Soinc, "to go out." Koy "when" (see 
228). Apa, " the doorway." Samakeia, *.' by the side of" (see 244). Okai, "to be 
at." Ikushbe, "a post." Nei-avibe, "that." Tatigi-laugi, "to beat," "to knock." 
Ainuhata, interj. " ah me !" Ne gusu, "because" (see 232). Ruive okai\ "are" 
(see 132 rt). Okaiy " to be at "or "in." Pishako (Jap.), "a ladle." Niwaiush, "a 
bucket." Ani, "with," "taking" (see 212). Otia, "to" (see 238). lia, "when" 
(see 172, 200). Shuputty name of a fresh-water fish. Cheppo-chepy "a fish;" /d?, a 
diminutive particle, cheppOy " a little fish." BcmcsUy " to go up,"" to ascend." Nukara 
"to see." Awdy "being" (see 213). Ency "thus." Toi\..ivcfiy "very bad." Toi 
pone opy wen pone opy " very bad and bony " or "exceedingly bony." Shniy "again." 
/<r>^a;;/"w fy^^/>, " a salmon-trout." Mimi pcucy "flabby-fleshed." Imakaketay "thence." 
Kamuichepy " autumn salmon." lyangarapte, " how do you do." Naniy " straightway." 
Orowdy "by" (see 239). TanCy "now." Akan'y — Uy passive particle ; kan'y ihn veib 
kara turned into a substantive by the particle / (see 32). 

276. — The following is a tale of two Foxes which may be found interesting to seme : 



Pan ambe ne wa shi no e-pirika rusui ; tambe gusu, sara turi wa Matomai ta eush 
ruwe ne. Aige, ene hawashi, "Kamui orowa no kamui-kuma an gusu, kosonde obitta 
satke chiki pirika na," kamui-tono itak. Tambe, gusu, kosonde ne yakka pirika miambe 
ne yakka a-satke ruwe ne. Okake an koro, Pan'anibe sara eta}e, ne a sarampe ne yakka 
pirika miambe ne yakka obitta Pan'ambe sara kotuk ine ariki. Chisei shik-no an e-pirika. 
Shi no nishpa ne ruwe ne. Orota, Pen'ambe san, " A-koro Pan'ambe ; nekon a ika wa, 
nishpa e nea?" sekoro itak. — "Ek wa ibe, a-epaskuma gusu ne na," sekoro Pan'ambe 
itak. Aige, " Hoshiki no chi ki gusu ne ap ; toi Pan'ambe, wen Pan'ambe! iyetushmak 
wa hawe an," ari itak koro soine ; pishta san, atui tomotuye sara luri Matomai ta arapare. 
" Kamui-kuma an na. Kosonde ne yakka pirika miambe ne yakka a-satke chiki pirika 
na" sekoro kamui-tono itak ruwe ne. Tambe gusu, kosonde ne yakka pirika miambe ne 
yakka obitta a-sange wa, kam^ui-kuma 010 a-cmare. Pen'ambe ne wa tunashi no sara 
etaye yak nishpa ne rusui ; tambe gusu, tunashi no etaye ruwe ne na. Ne a kamui-kuma 
moimoige awa, ene hawashi : " Tceda ncyakka ene shiri ki ; kamui-kuma an, tambe gusu 
kosonde ne yakka usa-pirika miambe a-salke ruwe ne, — awa, — ikka-guru kamui-kuma 
etaye waisam. Nishpa obitta shomo ki iuwene,~awa,--tane shui an kuma kosonde ne 
yakkaomare, pirika miambe ne yakka a-omare ruwe nc, — awa, — ikka-guru nekotom 'an ruwe 

Digitized by 



ne. Kamui-kuma tunash no tuye yan." Tambe gusu tono utara emushi etaye; kamui-kuma 
a-tuye ; ne a kosonde ne yakka pirika miambe ne yakka obitla a-uk ruwe ne na. Pen'ambe 
sara emko patek an ne ! elaye ruwe ne ; orowa, nep ka isam ; orowa, sbi no wen guru ne 
ruwe ne. Orowa Pan'ambe patek slii no e-pirika koro an ruwe ne. Pan anibe upaskuma 
ambe Pan'ambe nu chiki, ibe ne yakka eashkai, nishpa ne yakka ne noine ambe an ; 
koroka, upaskuma nu kopan. Tambe gusu wen guru ne ruwe ne. 
277. — Translation. 


Pan'ambe, having a great desire to become rich, stretched his tail across to the town 
of Matsumai. When the Lord of Matsumai saw the tail, he said, **This is a pole sent from 
the gods. Hang all my clothes upon it to air." So all the short-sleeved garments and 
good clothing were hung out. After a time, Pan'ambe drew back his tail, and all the soft 
silky garments and good clothing adhering to* it canie also ; so that he gained a whole 
housefull of things, and became very rich. Pen'ambe, hearing of his good fortune, called 
upon him and said, '* My dear Pan'ambe, what kave you done, that you have become 
so rich ? " Pan'ambe replied, ** Come and take some refreshment, and I will tell you." 
When he had heard all, Pen'ambe withdrawing said: *'This is the very thing we 
ourselves had intended to do, and you, — you abominable Pan'ambe — you disgusting 
Pan'ambe, have forestalled us." So saying, he went down to the seashore and stretched 
his tail across the sea to Matsumai. When the Lord of Matsumai saw it, he said, 
** Here is a pole sent by the gods. Hang out all my best clothes to air." So the 
clothes were hung upon it. But, Pen'ambe being in a great hurry to become rich, 
began to withdraw his tail too quickly. The Lord of Matsumai, seeing the pole move, 
said : " Even thus it happened once before. There came a pole from the gods, upon 
which we hung our clothes out to air; but a thief stole the pole away, and we all be- 
came poor. Now again a pole has come and we have hung our clothes upon it, but 
look! there appears to be a thief about; be quick, and cut the gods' pole in two." So 
the officers drew their swords and cut the pole, thereby saving all the clothes. Pen'ambe 
was left with but half a tail 1 so he drew it in, but had obtained nothing, and was in a 
very sorry plight. Now, if Pen'ambe had only listened to what Pan'ambe had said to him, 
he might have been a rich person and able to live ; but he did not like to be advised, so 
he became a very poor man. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 




A 112 (a), 134, 187-190, 267 (a) 

Abstract nouns 30-34 

Accent 6 

Adjectives 54-80 

Adverbial form of numerals 103 

Adverbs 162-182 

Adverbs of affirmation 177 

Abverbs of degree 174 

Adverbs of interrogation 176, 180 

Adverbs of manner 175 

Adverbs of negation 178 

Adverbs of place 173 

Adverbs of time 172, 137 

Aeramu shinne ^33 (^) 

Affirmation 177 

Aige ' 208 

Aine 209 

Akkari 7h W, W, (0> W^ (0 

Ambe 31, 44 

An 64, 138 

Anak, anakne 210 

Ani 212 

Animals, how counted 91 

Animals, sex, how expressed 17 

An ko 211 

Anun 112 (n) 

Article 21, 22, 87 

Auxiliaries 132, 133 

Cases of nouns 29 

Cases of pronouns 1 17-124 

Chiki 214 

Choropok 215 

Classifiers 92 

Comparison of adjectives 69-71 

Compound nouns 35-44 

Compound adjectives 56,68 

Concession, how expressed 146 

Condition, how expressed 146 

Consonants 3 

Degree, adverbs of 174 

Demonstrative adjectives... 72-74, 112, 

ii3» iH 
Pesire, how expressed 144 

Dialect 5 

Diversity, how expressed 23 

Double consonants 4 

'Doubt, how expressed 149 

Dropping of vowels 8 

E 75» 85 W. 192-196 

Eashka 171 (S) 

Eitasa 171 (^) 

Ekopash 215 (a) 

Ellipsis 8, 8 (a) 

Ene 216 

Enka 217 

Four quarters of compass 53 

Future tense 135,142 

Gender of nouns 15-18 

Gods, names of 46 

Half, different words for ^07 (e) 

Heikachi 7, 19, 25, 26 

Hekota 218 

Hemhem 219 

Hene 220 

Hike 221 

Hybrid compounds 14 

Hypothesis, how expressed 146 

I ' 10, 32, 33, 197, 200 

Ikashima 85 (a) 

Ikushta 222 

Imakake 223 

Indefinite pronouns 130 

Ine 224 

Interrogations 130, 176, 180-184 

Interjections 183, 184 

Intransitive verbs, how made transi- 
tive 159-162 

lyotta 78 

•Ka 225,226 

Kamui 46, 95 

Kane 167,170 

Kara 168 

Kara, verbs in 155 

Kara, paradigm of 151-154 

Kashi 227 

Kasu no 171 (/) 

Digitized by 



Katu 42, 43 

Kik, paradigm of 140-150 

Ko 228 

Kor'an 132 (c) 

Koro...65, 125-127, 155, 167, 168, 171 

Kuni 230 

Kunne 98 

Kushta 231 

Kusu 232 

Letter-changes 2, 7, 9 

Masculine and feminine words 16 

Masculine of human beings, how 

expressed 18 

Mashki'no 171 (d) 

Mood 131 

Mood imperative 143 

Mood potential 145 

Months 52 

Na 136 

Naa 78, 171 (e)' 

Nangoro 136 

Ne 56, 57 

Negatives 147, 148, 178, 179 

Newa 233 

Ne-yakka 234 

Nisa ; 133 (a) 

Niu 89, 22 

No 76, 169 

Noun 15-53 

Noun, repetition of 90-99 

Noun, number of 20-28 

Nu 58 

Numerals 91-107 

59, 201-204 

Oara 166 

Objective case 124 

Objective case of pronouns ... 119, 120 

Okake 235 

Okari 235 

Okere 133 (3). 

Okkaibo 19 

Ordinal form of numerals 100,102 

Oro 237 

Orota 238 

Orowa 239 

Oshike 240 

Pairs of articles, how expressed ... 105 

Pakno 241 

Participles 150 

Passive verbs 39,267 

Pe, p 38-40, 78-80. 90 

Phonetic system i-ii 

Pish 91, 92 

Place, adverbs of 173 

Place-names 49 

Plurality, how expressed ... 23, zy, 105 

Postpositions 207-253 

Prepositions 196-201 

Pronouns 108-130 

Pronouns of first person 109,119 

Pi onouns of second person... no, in, 

120, 122 
Pronouns of third person. 112-114, 125 

Pronouns long and short 118 

Pronouns possessive 120-127 

Pronouns relative 128 

Pronouns reflexive 115, 116 

Proper nouns 45, 50 

Radical form of numerals... 21, 22, 82, 

86, 87, 23 

Rata 242 

Reduplication 10, 11 

Reflexive pronouns 115,116 

Reflexive verbs 163, 164 

Ri 243 

Ruwe ne 132 (a), 136 

Sak 66, 67 

Sama 244 

Score 83,84 

Seasons 51 

Shine 21, 22, 87 

Shirikata 245 

Shiri ne 132 (^) 

Singular number, how expressed ... 21, 

72, 73' 106 
Substantive form of numerals ... 88-99 

Ta 246, 173 

Tapan 132 (d) 

Tara 77 

Tek 60 

Tense, present 140 

Tense, past 141 

Tense, future 142 

Time, adverbs of 172 

Than, comparative with 71 

To 96, 97 

Toiko 166 

Tokap 97 

Tumugeta 247 

U 205, 206 

Uko 165 

Un 68, 248 

Ush 61,63 

Ulari -23-25, 27 

Uturu 249 

Uwe 165 

Verbs 131-168 

Verbs, paradigms of 140-154 

Verbs, list of 157 

Verbs, special plural forms of 156 

Verbs transitive and causative 158-162 

Wa 250 

Wa no 251 

We 251 

Words borrowed from Japanese 12,13 

Ya 252 

Yak 253 

Digitized by 




There seems to be an impression that little has been written about Yezo 
and the Ainos. To many Europeans Miss Bird is the sole authority on the 
subject. Among the Japanese the only generally known names are Mogami, 
Mamiya, and Matsuura. It has therefore been thought that a catalogue of the 
literature of the subject may not be without use to students. The aim has been 
to make the catalogue as complete as possible. But the conditions are such as 
to render absolute completeness impossible. Rare European works cannot be 
obtained, indeed in many cases cannot be heard of, at this distance from 
Europe; and rare Japanese manuscripts cannot easily be disinterred from the 
dust of ancient **godowns/' unless their owners will come forward to proclaim 
their existence. For these reasons many titles are probably still missing. 

In order to render the catalogue as useful as possible, details are given 
touching the author's name, date of publication, general nature of contents,. etc. 
When such details are omitted, it must be understood that they are not to be 
ascertained. For instance, if no author's name is given, the work is anony- 
mous. In the case of the works marked ** Mito," it has been impossible to give 
any particular description, because they have not been seen by the compiler. 
Except in the case of the commoner printed books, which may be obtained at 
any bookseller's, it has been deemed advisable to add the name of the library in 
which each work is at present found. Persons desirous of consulting any par- 
ticular work will thus know where to apply. The following abbreviations have 
been used to denote the chief libraries consulted : — 

Bureau of History^ i.e. the library of the Bureau of History attached to the 
Cabinet, Tokyo. 

Bureau of Records, i.e. the library of the Bureau of Records attached to 
the Cabinet, Tokyo. 

Chamberlain, i.e. the present writer's library, Tokyo. 

Digitized by 



Educational Museum, i.e. the library of the Tokyo Museum attached to 
the Educational Department, Tokyo. 

Geographical Bureau, i.e. the library of the Geographical Bureau of the 
Department of the Interior, Tokyo. 

Hakodate^ i.e. the library of the Hakodate Government Office. 

Interior^ i.e. the library of the Department of the Interior, Tokyo. 

MatsumaCy i.e. the library of Marquis Matsumae, T6ky5. 

MitOy I.e. that portion of Marquis Tokugawa's library which remains at 
Mito, the old provincial residence of the family. 

Sapporo^ i.e. the library of the Sapporo Government Office. 

Tokugawa^ i.e. the library of Marquis Tokugawa, the present representa- 
tive of the old noble House of Mito. 

A star (^) has been prefixed to the titles of such works as appear to the 
compiler to be worthy of more particular notice. 

Occasionally the same title occurs twice, and even three times. It must, 
in such cases, be understood that, to the best of the compiler's knowledge, the 
manuscripts in question are really different works, though bearing the same 
name. Furthermore a few of the works in the catalogue, as described by their 
titles and by the summary of their contents, may appear to have but scant rela- 
tion both to Yezo and to the Ainos. This is notably the case with such as refer 
to Russian aggression in the North. The reason for their insertion is that the 
subject of Russian aggression in Northern Japanese waters is so intimately 
bound up with the history of Yezo and the Ainos, that it was found practically 
impossible to draw any line which should satisfactorily divide one from the other. 
This being the case, it was thought better to err on the side of inclusion than of 
exclusion. This principle has, however, not been carried to the length of 
including all the European books of travel and of reference, which make a 
passing mention of the Ainos and of the islands they dwell in. To do so w-ould 
have been to swell the list uselessly. Such standard geographical works, 
for instance, as Keane's Asia, and Reclus' Le Monde et ses Habitants, 
though they touch on the subject of Yezo and the Ainos, do* not do so in a 
manner to warrant their inclusion in a list of books specially devoted to that 
subject. The same is the case with sudi older works as Strahlenberg*s 
Fabula Poly^lotta, Klaproth's Asia Polyglotta^ Broughton and La Perouse's 
Voyages, and others, from which European investigators were till recently 
constrained (in the absence of better sources of information) to borrow scanty 
and strangely spelt vocabularies of Aino words. The more complete knowledge 
of Aino, which the opening of Japan to foreign intercourse has recently 
made possible, relegates such vocabularies to the category of mere curiosities 
without further use to future investigators. 

I. — ** Aardrijks-en Volkenkundige Toelichtingen tot de Outdekkingen von 
Maerten Gerritsz. Vries, benerens eine Verhandeling over de Aino- 

Digitized by 



Taal en de Voortbrengselen der Aino-Landen.** By Ph. Fr. von Siebold, 
Amsterdam, 1858. i Vol. Treats of Vries* discoveries in Northern Japan- 
ese waters, of the Aino language, and of the productions of Yezo. 

2. — *' A General Report on the Geology of Yesso." By B. S. Lyman. Tokei, 
1877. I Vol. print. Published by the Kaitakushi. 

3. — *''Ainsko-Russkii Slovar." By M. M. Dobrotvorsky, 1875. i Vol. A 
copious Aino-Russian dictionary of the Saghalien dialect of Aino. 

4._**Aizu Sendai Ninzu-Oshi," ^ W^ii\^ AWiVf- i Vol. MS. An ac- 
count of the forces sent to Yezo by the Lords of Aizu and Sendai after the 
Russian incursions at the beginning of the present century. Bureau of 

5. — ** A Journey in Yezo.'' By Capt. Bridgford, R.M.A. Paper read 14th 
January, 1874, and published in Vol. IL of the ** Transactions of the Asia- 
tic Society of Japan.'* 

6. — *' An Ainu Vocabulary." By J. Batchelor. Paper read 8th March, 
1882, and published in Vol. V. of the *' Transactions of the Asiatic Society 
of Japan." 

7. — '* An Aino-English Vocabulary." By Rev. J. Summers. Paper read 5th 
May, 1886, and printed in Vol. XIV. of the ** Transactions of the Asiatic 
Society of Japan." 

8.— *'Ansei Do Hakodate Bugyosho Shorui," ^gfcMSl*l^ff^/fSS- 
From 1854 to i860. 2 Vols. MS. A collection of official documents rela- 
tive to the government of Yezo. Hakodate. 

9.—** Ansei Ezo Shochi Torishirabe-sho,'' $Wii^^ 1^ WM^^- Some 
time between 1854 and i860, i Vol. M.S. Contains a memorial by the 
Prince of Mito on the development of the Island of Yezo, and other docu- 
ments on kindred matters. Hakodate. 

10. — ''A Vocabulary of Aino Words and Phrases." By Walter Dening. 
Published in the ** Chrysanthemum " Magazine from September to Decem- 
ber, 1 881. This vocabulary was compiled from personal intercourse with 
the Ainos of Southern Yezo. 

II. — "Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Aino-Poesie," by A. Pfizmaier. 

12. — *^ Bemerkungen iiber Ainos,'' W. Donitz. Paper published in the 
" Mittheilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fiir Natur und Volkerkunde 
Ostasiens," December, 1874. It treats of the physical characteristics of 
the Ainos. 

13.— "Beppon Aka-Ezo FGsetsu K5," glj }*: # jg ^ E 19;^ i794- i Vol. 
MS. Notes taken at the time of the landing in Urup of the ** Red Bar- 
barians," i.e. the Russians. Bureau of History. 

Digitized by 



14- — '' Beschrijvinge van het Eylandt Eso soo alst erst in't selvige jaer door 
het Schip Castricum bezeylt is." By N. WItsen. Amsterdam, 1646. 

15.— *^ Ezo Nikki," XitSHS^M BU 1804-1818. Illustrated. 
Treats of Russian incursions on the island of Itorup. Hakodate. 

i6._'»Bunka Otcha Rosha-jin Torai Ki," ^>ffcZ,3fc«lS2SAi!l3j£ia, 
about 1805. I Vol. MS. An account of the interrogatory by Japanese 
officials of thirteen Russians who came to Itorup in the year 1805. Bureau 
of History. 

17. — ^'^ Charts." Published by the Imperial Japanese Hydrographic Bureau. 

Yezo Island General No. 452 — 1881 1885. Various Sources. 

Hakodate Harbour No. 2,672—1881 1885. British Survey. 

Sutsu and Otaru, Mukawa Bay,") 

Endermo Harbour, Malu Yama, V No. 993—1871 1883. British Survey. 

Mori J 

"^Htan^ra^BaTNeSr ..^!^:5 No. 99-1873 — .88. Japanese Survey. 
Akishi Bay No. 992—1871. British Survey. 

18.—**' Charts." Published by the British Hydrographic Office. 

Yezo Island General No. 141 — November 1882. Various Sources. 

Hakodate Harbour No. 6 — June 1884. English & American Surveys. 

Fukushima Bay No. 69— June 1876. Japanese Survey. 

Sutsu Bay * No. 4 — February 1879. Japanese Survey. 

Otaru Anchorage No. 5 — November 1879. Japanese Survey. 

Notsuke Anchorage No. 2 — May 1878. Japanese Survey. 

Nemuro Anchorage No. 20— April 1874. Japanese Survey. 

Goyomai Channel No. 8 — July 1878. Japanese Survey. 

Akishi Bay No. 27 — April 1882. Japanese Survey. 

Mori No. 137 — January 1882. Japanese Survey. 

Various Harbours No. 138 — ^January 1882. Various Sources. 

19.—'^ Chiba Masanoshin Hikki," =M| gfc ;t H ^ IB- 1807, i Vol. MS. (also 
containing other matter.) An account of the Russian descent on the 
island of Itorup in 1807. — One of the pieces in the volume is a diary of a 
journey from Hakodate up the west coast of Yezo to Soya. Hakodate. 

20.—" Chihoku Gudan/' fkHt^Wt. by Karasu Yaji. 3 Vols. MS. Treats 
of the defence of Yezo against the barbarians. Sapporo. 

2i._^^'Chishima Ibun/' =f^H||||^, by '' UyG Sanjin.'' 1824. 2 Vols. MS. 
Consists of well-chosen extracts from various works relative to the history 
of Yezo and the extreme north generally, from the earliest times to the 
year 1791. Its touches on the subject of Russian aggression. Bureau of 
History. Chamberlain. 

22.— *' Chishima Junko Gaiki/' =1^ ^ M JKiE BE. Paper published in the 
"Journal of the Tokio Geographical Society" for 1881, giving a Japanese 
translation of a letter on the Kurile Islands by a Russian named Teimoi- 
garukin (?). 

23. — " Chishima Kiko/' ^f* i% |£ ft; by Sato Hideakira. i Vol. print. A 
diary of a voyage to the Kurile Islands, with an account of the natives. 

Digitized by 



24.— *" Chishima Kyokai Ko/' =f j^fi^jt^, by Enomoto Buyo. Paper 
published in the "Journal of the Tokio Geographical Society" for 1881. 
A valuable contribution to the early history of the Kurile Islands. 

25. — " Chishima Shi," ^fH^tB- A translation of a portion of a Russian work 
by Borousky (?). 1871. 4 Vols. MS. Describes the customs of the Kurile 
Islanders. Sapporo. 

26. — "Chishima no Shiranami," ^li©^^, by Hi rata Atsutane. 1811. 8 
Vols. MS. An account of Russian incursions in Yezo and of a French 
outrage at Nagasaki, together with the official correspondence thereon. 
The book has not, as might be inferred from the title, any special reference 
to the Kurile Islands. Hakodate. 

27. — ^*" Der Baerencultus und die Baerenfeste der Ainos, mit Einigen Bemer- 
kungen ueber die Taenze Derselben," by Dr. B. Scheube. Paper published 
in the " Mittheilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fiir Natur und Volker- 
kunde Ostasiens.*^ December, 1880. Treats of Aino bear- worship and 

28. — ''Chishima no Ki," =1^ Klg ;2S SB- 2 Vols. MS. Diary of the journal of an 
official sent to enquire into Russian raids in the North. It is garnished 
with original verses. Bureau of Records. 

29. — " Der Flaecheninhalt von Yezo und den Kurilen." By E. Knipping. Short 
Paper published in the " Mittheilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur 
Natur-und Volkerkunde Ostasiens," April, 1878. Gives the superficial area 
of Yezo and the Kurile Islands. 

30. — '* Description de la Terre Jesso." By Isaac Titsingh. Contained in Malte- 
Brun's '' Annales des Voyages," Paris, 1814. 

31. — ''Description of the Skeleton of an Aino Woman," etc., etc. By J. B. 
Davis. Memoir read before the Anthropological Society of London, Vol. 
III. 1870. 

32.—*" Die Ainos." By Dr. B. Scheube. Published in the " Mittheilungen der 
Deutschen Gesellschaft fiir Natur und Volkerkunde Ostasiens,'' February, 
1882. An interesting general account of the Ainos from personal observa- 
tions. It contains a vocabulary. 

33. — " Die Korperlichen Eigenschaften der Japaner." By E. Baelz. In pp. 
334 to 337 oi this paper, published in the " Mittheilungen der Deutschen 
Gesellschaft fiir Natur-und Volkerkunde Ostasiens," February, 1883, the 
author discusses the questions of Aino hairiness and of the race to which 
the Ainos belong; and on pp. 358-359 that of Aino skulls. 

34.—*" Dochu Yowa," ^ ft ^ fj, by Murayama Sadasuke. 1808. 3 Vol. MS. 
illustrated. Treats of the manners and customs of the Ainos. Sapporo. 

35.—" Dojin Yuraiki," ± A ft 3)i ffi, i Vol. MS. A collection of petitions, 

Digitized by 



etc., addressed by the Ainos to the local Japanese authorities between the 
years 1808 and 18 13. Sapporo. 

36. — *' Dokugo/' ^ ^, by Hayakawa Hisanori. 1808. i Vol. MS. An ac- 
count in Chinese of Yezo and the Ainos. It forms Vol. XXXI. of a work 
entitled " Heigo Zakki." Bureau of History. 

37.—'^ Eii Dosei Kibun," W 51® S^ It W» i Vol. Mito. 

38.—'' Engo Ko/' 1^ fg^. Written some time between 1804 and 1818. i Vol. 
MS. The first few pages give the earlier forms of a number of proper 
names in Yezo. Some unimportant business documents form the bulk of 
the volume. Hakodate. 

39.— *'EnkaiIbun/'f&}|J^^,by HondaToshiakira. 1786. i Vol. MS. Treats 
of the origin and customs of the Ainos and Russians. Bureau of History. 

40. — ''Erorterungen und Aufklarungen iiber Aino/' by Dr. August Pfizmaier. 
Vienna, 1882. Contains additions to the author's previous contributions 
to the knowledge of Aino. This memoir was prompted by an adverse 
critique of his ** Ueber den Bau der Aino-Sprache" appended to Dobrot- 
vorsky's Dictionary. 

41. — **Esashi Oki no Kuchi yori Chindai ni Itaru Zu," iCfSr*!*^ P^V^ 
^^S>'^H- Anonymous and without date, i Scroll MS. A curious 
map of Esashi. Bureau of History. 

42. — ^**' Ethnologische Studien iiber die Aino auf der Insel Yesso." By Hein- 
rich von Siebold. Berlin, 1881. i Vol. illustrated. An interesting general 
account of the Ainos from personal observations. 

43.— "Etorofu Ki,'' ^^1155 IB, by Kida Korekuni. 1806. i Vol. MS. 
A treatise on the topography and natural characteristics of the Island of 
Itorup. Sapporo. 

44.—*' Etorofu Shi," JS S S iS^ ^- ^^oi. i Vol. MS. A general account 
of the Island of Itorup. Hakodate. 

45.—*' Ezo Buiku Taii-gaki," Sg ^ Si W ::*: Sf tf » 1 799i i Vol. MS. Documents 
relative to the treatment of the Ainos. It forms Vol. II. of a work entitled 
*' Toyo Ittoku." Bureau of History. 

46.— **Ezo Bunka Roku,'' MMXitf^^ i Vol. MS. An account of the Rus- 
sian descent on Saghalien in the first years of the present century. Bureau 
of Records. 

47.— " Ezo Bussan Shi,'' Jg^^^ig, 2 Vols. MS. with maps. This work 
gives the names in (local) Japanese and in Aino of the productions of the 
Island of Yezo. Hakodate. 

48.—'* Ezo-chi Etorofu Ko," i!^MM=^ ^ ^ ^ M> i Vol. MS. A general 
description of Itorup and its inhabitants. Tokugawa. 

Digitized by 



49.—" Ezo-chi Fuzoku Kaki-age/* tg H^Jit ^ ^ J: ; " Kamushatsuka-koku 
Fisetsu Ko/* M^'S^^MMMsUk^ 1715- I Vol. A general ac- 
count of the Ainos and of the *'Red Barbarians," i.e. the Russians, who had 
by that time appeared in Kamschatka. The Russian alphabet is given. 
Bureau of History. 

50.—" Ezo-chi Go Kaitaku Sho O Kaki-tsuke Sho Ukagai Shorui," Jg^%^ 
IBfe^1»l^ft^^*S. 1854 to 1857. 2V0IS.MS. Fifty-seven docu. 
ments relative to the development of Yezo, forming part of the official re- 
cords of the government of Hakodate. Bureau of History. 

51.—'' Ezo-chi Go-yo-dome," Jg^%tSlffi®» ^ Vol. MS. An account of an 

official tour in Yezo, together with suggestions for the improvement of the 

country. Hakodate. 
52.— *' Ezo-chi Ik-ken,*' Jg ^ % — #, by Yamaguchi Tetsugoro. 1785. 5 

Vols. MS. An account of an official inspection of the various islands to the 

North of Yezo. Bureau of History. 

53.— *^ Ezo-chi JunkaiKi,"Jg^% igJUI IB. 1809. i Vol. MS. A geography 
of Yezo. Bureau of Records. 

54.— ''Ezo-chi-Kaitaku Zonjiyori-gaki," jg^^lgfg:)^^^, by Honda Toshi- 
akira. 1791. i Vols. MS. A plea for the development of Yezo, in view 
of Russian aggression. Bureau of History. 

55.— •» Ezo-chi Kakitsuke," *g ^ ^ ^ ft- 1857. ^ Vols. MS., by Hori Oribe 
no Sho and Muragaki Awaji no Kami. A report on the defences and 
productions of Yezo. Bureau of History. 

56.— '^ Ezo-chi KarafutoNikki,''ig^^jg:^^HlB. 1854, i Vol.MS. ^ Diary 
of a journey in Yezo by a member of the suite of Hori Oribe no Sho, then 
Commissioner for Foreign Affairs. Bureau of History. 

57. — " Ezo Chimei Kai/* WiMUJl^M* ^ Vol. MS. Consists of short explana- 
tions, not always successful, of a large number of names of places on the 
coast of Yezo. Sapporo. 

58.—'' Ezo-chi Mi-komi-gaki-Hisho,'* jg MiSiM.&^ S8 ^ i Vol. MS. An 
official report on the island of Rishiri. Educational Museum. 

59.—*' Ezo-chi narabi ni Ikoku Sakai no Zu," ig5|%afe||H;^H. By Tachi- 
bana no Masatoki and Yamaguchi Takashina, 2 sheets MS. Maps of Yezo 
and the neighbouring countries. Tokugawa. 

60.—" Ezo-chi no Gi Kaki-Dashi," Jg ^;N6 jfcfR * ffi, i Vol. MS. An account 
of the expedition of some officials to Yezo to enquire into the causes of the 
bad state of the country. Tokugawa. 

61.— *'Ezo-chi Risa-gaki Narabi ni Zakki," jg^ ;%Mii;#M - JtIB, i Vol. 
MS. A list of itineraries and distances in Yezo. Bureau of Records. 

63.—'' Ezo-chi Sakaime Tori-shirabe," jg ^%:l^ B MV^^ by Matsuura Take- 

Digitized by 



shiro; 4 Vols. MS. Illustrated. Treats of the gradual changes that have 
taken place in the extension and boundaries of the villages on the coast of 
Yezo. Hakodate. 

63.—'* Ezo-chi Shohotsu Ki/* tg ^ % fj S IB, by Katsuragawa Ho. 1 792. i 
Vol. MS. Relates the audience given by the Shogun at Yedo to three 
sailors from Ise, who had been picked up at sea by the Russians and brought 
to Japan. Educational Museum. 

64.— " Ezo-chi Sho-Yakunin On Teate Sadame-gaki/' WiMHHU^A"^^ 
•g"^^. 1801-1807. I Vol. MS. A document relating to the salaries 
of officials in Yezo and the North. Bureau of History. 

65.—" Ezo-chi Shukai Zu/' tg^l^^® B. i Sheet MS. An outline map of 
Urup, Itorup, and Saghalien. Tokugawa. 

66.—'^ Ezo-chi Sodo Kiki-gaki Jitsuroku/^ *g^;%!Slll^*3t^- 1807. i 
Vol. MS. An account of a Russian descent on Itorup. Tokugawa. 

67.—'* Ezo-chi Tori-atsukai-dome/^ ig^^iKIR®- 1802-1809. i Vol. MS. 
Official papers concerning the finances and population of Yezo. Educa- 
tional Museum. 

68.—*' Ezo-chi Tori-Hakarai-kata Joshin/' JK ^ ^ ^ If :# -h 4^ S. by Kawa- 
shiri Higo no Kami, i Vol. MS. A memorial on the subject of the Rus- 
sian request for intercourse with Japan. Educational Museum. 

69.— *' Ezo-dan," jg 5IIII, by '* Riku Chintei Shujin.^' About 1789. i Vol. 
MS. Treats of the various Aino risings against Japanese rule from A.n. 
1443 to 1789. Bureau of History. 

70. — " Ezo-Dan Hikki," JS^Sfe^lE* hy Arai Hakuseki, between 1704 and 
171 1. I Vol. MS. Treats of the productions of Yezo, the Aino language, 
and the Aino revolt under Shagushamu in 1669. Bureau of Records. 

71.—** Ezo Danwa Ki," *S ^ Hat^ IE- i Vol. Mito. 

72.— "Ezo Dogu Zu/' t^M^M: Wi> by Yasuda Gimbei and others, i MS. 
Scroll. Drawings of Aino utensils. Bureau of History. ^ 

73.— ''Ezo Enkai Ritei Ki/' ig^t&iftMStB- i Vol. MS. Itineraries 
on the coast of Yezo. Chamberlain. 

74.— ''Ezo Enkaku K6/' *S^t&^^, by Yamada Shishuku. i Vol. MS. 
Annals of Yezo from the earliest days, written in Chinese. Bureau of 
Records. Tokugawa. 

75.—" Ezo radoki," fix ^E±IB. by Niiyama Tadasu. 1789. i Vol. MS. 
A description of Yezo, written in Chinese. Bureau of History. 

76.—*" Ezo Fudoki," Jg ^ J®, ± IB, by Minamoto no Norihiro. 1863. i Vol. 
MS. Illustrated. A general account of the manners and customs of the 
Ainos, together with notes on the botany and zoology of Yezo. It is written 
in Chinese. Anolhercopy, at Sapporo, contains a vocabulary. Hakodate. 

Digitized by 



77._*" Ezo Fudoki/' *S ^ E ± IB- 2 Vols. MS. Good illustrations of Yezo 

scenery and Aino customs. Bureau of Records. 
78.— ♦"Ezo Fuzoku Isan/* JK^EiS^^- Published by the Kaitakushi. 

1882. 20 Vols, print. An excellent general account of the Ainos, founded 

on various early authorities and on new observations. 
79.—*" Ezo Gajo/* iS ^ @ W- 8 Vols. MS. illust. Illustrations of Aino im- 

plements and customs. Bureau of Records. 

80.—" Ezo Go Kaitaku Tori-Shirabe-sho/' JK ^ ^ M fc IS 19 S^» ^y Hori 
Oribe and others. Between 1854 and i860. i Vol. MS. Official reports 
on the administration and trade of Yezo. Hakodate. 

81.— "Ezo Gosen/* WiMta^, by Uehara Aritsugu, 1854. i Vol. print. 
With small map and one illustration. A vocabulary and phrase-book of 
the Aino language. An appendix gives a short vocabulary of Russian 
transliterated into Japanese Kana. 

82.—" Ezo Goshu," ig ^ gg ^, by Uehara Aritsugu. 4 Vols. MS. An ex- 
tensive Aino-Japanese vocabulary. Bureau of History. 

83.— "Ezo Goyo-dome," j^ ^ ^ ffi ®, 1802— 1811. i Vol. MS. An ac- 
count of the management of the Ainos by the Japanese. It forms Vol. V. 
of a work entitled " Heishin Zassetsu.*' Bureau of History. 

84.—^" Ezo Hen-yo Bunkai," Sg ^ ^ ^ ^ 5f^, by Kondo Morishige. 1804. 
4 Vols. MS. illustrated. An account of Yezo, Saghalien, and the Kuriles, 
also of the Ainos, with special reference to the geographical boundaries 
between Aino-land and Russian and Manchurian territory. Chamberlain. 

85.— "Ezo Hoki Gairyaku Ki," Sg ^ S$ jlSiEB^ IB- Some time between 
1661 and 1673. I Vol. MS. An account of civil discords among the Ainos, 
and of strife between them and Japanese coolies in the employ of the 
Daimyo of Matsumae. Hakodate. 

86.— "Ezo Hokkyoku Shutchi Do," *S ^ft S HI *ll» by In5 Kageyu. i 
Vol. MS. A determination of distances on the coast of Yezo. The 
author is the most famous geographer of Japan. Educational Museum. 

87.— " Ezo Ik-ken," jg^ — >|^, by Araida Magoshiro. 1790. i Vol. MS. 
Treats of the misdeeds of one Aoshima Shunz5 in connection with a rising 
in Kunashiri. Bureau of History. 

88.—" Ezo Ikki Kohaiki,'* *S II — ^ ft ^ IB, by Kan-emon. 1669. 2 Vols. 

MS. An account of the quelling, by the Lord of Matsumae's troops, of the 

Aino revolt under the chieftain Shagushamu in 1669. Bureau of History. 
89.—" Ezo Jikki,'' jg H ^ |B, by Matsumae Hironaga. About 1669. i Vol. 

MS. Treats of Aino customs and Aino revolts against the Japanese from 

A.D. 1456 onwards. Bureau of History. 
90.— " Ezo-jima Hyochaku," Wi'%%%1^' Anonymous. About 1669. i 

Digitized by 



Vol. MS. An account of the stranding in Yczo of a junk belonging to 
Shichirobei, a native of Matsuzaka, in Ise, and of the Aino rising under 
Shagushamu in i66g. Bureau of History. 

91. — '* Ezo-jima Kikan/' SS^^'^HB.. by Hada no Aokimaro. i Vol. MS. 
Illustrations, with explanatory letter-press, of the Ainos and their 
customs. Bureau of History. 

92. — " Ezo-jima no Ki/' ffi 51 ^ IB- i Vol. MS. Treats of the customs of 
the Ainos. Bureau of History. 

93.—'' Ezo Jimbutsu Fuku-ki no Zu," iS^MA^M^M- ^ Vol. MS. Illu- 
strations of Aino costume and implements. Educational Museum. 

94.— "Ezo Jimbutsu Shi,'' SK^A^^Ilm by Matsuura Hiroshi. 1857. 3 
Vols. MS. Anecdotes of eminent Ainos. Hakodate. 

95.—*' Ezo-jin Buki no Zu," ^MA^^M- 2 Vols, and 3 Sheets. Mito. 

96.— '* Ezo-jin Kuma-matsuri no Zu," ^MAM^2.M' ^ Scroll MS. 
Illustrations of the Aino bear-festival. Bureau of Records. 

97.—" Ezo-jin Yobo no Zu," ^MA^M^M- ^ Coloured Scroll. Pictures 
of Aino chiefs and Aino festivals. Tokugawa. 

98.— "Ezo-jin Yuryo no Zu,'' WiMA^MM^U- ^ Coloured Scroll.' Pic- 
tures of the Ainos hunting, fishing, and celebrating the bear-festival. 

99.—" Ezo-jin Zu," Sg ^ A ©• I Vol. Mito. 

100.—" Ezo Jiryaku,'' Jg ^ ^Kj^. 2 Vols. MS. Mito. 

loi.— '* Ezo Joruri Yakubun," ^M^J^MMX^ i Vol. MS. A collection of 
Aino yukara or songs. Tokugawa. 

102.—" Ezo Joy5shG," WiMWi)^^- § Vols. MS. illust. Gives details con- 
cerning the clothing and houses of the Ainos. Bureau of Records. 

103.—* '' Ezo JQi," £^ ^ |& iS, by Yamaguchi Tetsugoro. 1786. i Vol. MS. 
illustrated. A good account of the Ainos and of the islands they inhabit, 
together with a vocabulary of their language. Sapporo. 

104.— " Ezo jai," MM^^y by Sat5 Genrokuro. 1786. 4 Vols. MS. An 
account of the smaller islands occupied by the Ainos, together with notices 
of the neighbouring continental natives and of the Russians. Tokugawa. 

,05.— ^'Ezo JQi,''Sg^f&^5t»byAo Masanori. 1788. Vol. MS. illustrated. A 
general account of the Ainos and of the various islands they inhabit. Also 
contains a few notes on, and quaint illustrations of, Russians and various 
Russian objects, such as crucifixes, etc. (This and the two preceding 
numbers, though written about the same time, and bearing the same title, 
appear to be distinct works.) Sapporo. 

106.— ''Ezo jai Bekkan,'^ SS ^ |&^ 'iS SO ^» ^794- i Vol. MS. A memorial 
relative to the arrival of the Russians in Urup. Tokugawa. 

Digitized by 



loy.— '*Ezo Junken Roku/' Jg ^ j^ ;§, ^, 1786. i.Vol. MS. An epitome of 
Yamaguchi Tetsugoro's '* Ezo Jui." Bureau of History. 

108.— "Ezo Junran Hikki/' ^^MEiEtB> by Takaliashi Kank5. 1797. 
5 Vols. MS. An account of a journey to Saghalien, the author having been 
sent lliere by the Lord of Matsumae to endeavour to establish commercial 
factories. Tokugawa. 

109.— *' Ezo Kaikon Shi/' i^MfMM^-- 3 Vols. MS. A collection of des- 
patches by Ori Horibe, Muragaki Yosaburo, and other officials of the early 
part of the present century relative to the development of Yezo. Hakodate. 

no.— '^ Ezo Kaikyo Chimei Ritei Haku/' iUMM^M^ ^U?^- i Vol. 
MS. A list of distances in Yezo, and kindred information. Interior. 

III.— ^^ Ezo Kaikyo Yochi Zenzu," |^ ^ [^ J^-JHifi^Ei, by Fujita Ryo. 1854. 
I sheet print. A map of Yezo, Saghalien, and the Kuriles in the old- 
fashioned Japanese style. Chamberlain. 

112.—'* Ezo Karafuto-jima no Ki," !^^ jg^icllijSStfi, i Vol. MS. A general 
account of the Island of Saghalien. Sapporo. 

113. — ** Ezo Keiryaku Ko," I^H^K^^, by Kitazawa Seisei. Paper published 
in the '* Journal of the Tokio Geographical Society for 1881.'' A sketch of 
Yezo and its inhabitants. 

114.— '^ Ezo Kembun Ki,*' WiMM^T^ti,- i Vol. MS. An account of Aino 
customs and Yezo productions. Tokugawa. 

115.— *' Ezo Kembun Shi,'* *S^;g. ^|J- 2 Vols. MS. illustrated. Contains 
information concerning Yoshitsunels sojourn in Yezo, and topographical 
and other matters. Sapporo. 

116.—" Ezo Kembun' Shi," Jg ^ ;g, ^ |^», 10 Vols. MS. illustrated. Treats of 
the Ainos, and gives an extensive vocabulary. Sapporo. 

117.— '* Ezo Ki,*' ig^lfi. 1 Vol. MS. illustrated. An account of the Ainos, 
especially from the point of view of morals and intellect. Sapporo. 

118.— '^ Ezo Ki,*' iglllB, I Vol. MS. A general account of Yezo and the 
Ainos, with special reference to the revolt under Shagushamu. Bureau of 

119. — '' Ezo Kibun,*' jg ^ IE ^, 1807. 5 Vols. MS. An account of an armed 
Russian descent on the Island of Itorup, and of the despatch of Japanese 
troops to resist them. Educational Museum. Hakodate. 

120.—*' Ezo Kibun," Jg ^ |B ^, 1804. 4 Vols. MS. illustrated. Contains details 
concerning the early history of Tsugaru and of Matsumae, concerning the 
language and customs of the Ainos and the geography of Yezo. It concludes 
with an account of the landing at Nagasaki of a shipwrecked crew that 
had been picked up by a Russian ship. Chamberlain. 

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121.— *'Ezo Kiko," ig ^|£fir» by Tani Gentan. 1799. 2 Vols. MS. Con- 
tains the results of an enquiry into the state and productions of Yezo made 
by Matsudaira Shinano no Kami, a high official of the Shog^n's Govern- 
ment. The Sapporo copy is full of illustrations explanatory of Aino 
customs. Educational Museum. Sapporo. 

122.— "Ezo Kiko," WiM^ffy by Tateno Tangen. 1806. i Vol. MS. illus- 
trated. The diary of a journey in Yezo. Sapporo. 

123.—'' Ezo Kiko/' Jg ^ la^, by Mogami Tokunai. 2 Vols. MS. Diary of 
an official journey in Yezo, undertaken by Mogami and his companions in 
order to collect medicinal herbs. Bureau of History. 

124. — "Ezo Kiryaku," Jg ^ IB B^. i Vol. MS. An account of the Russian 
outrages in, and flight from, the Island of Itorup. Educational Museum. 

125.—" Ezo-koku Fuzoku Ninjo no Sata," 1^MMM,i& A'^ :^^ik' Com- 
piled by Honda Samuroemon from notes by his pupil Mogami Tokunai. 
1790. 3 Vol. MS. A treatise on Yezo and the North, and on the manners 
and customs of the Ainos. This is the original draft of the book after- 
wards given to the world by Mogami Tokunai under the title of ** Ezo 
Zoshi.'^ Educational Museum. Chamberlain. Sapporo. 

126.—" Ezo Kokufu Zue,'' Sg ^ ® Bl ® ft- i MS. scroll. Illustrations of the 
bear-festival and of other Aino customs. Bureau of Records. 

127. — * " Ezo-koku Kisambun,'' JS ^ S IB ^ Wi by Minamoto no Kimiyoshi. 
1720. 6 Vols. MS. illustrated. A general treatise on Yezo and the Ainos. 

128.— "Ezo-koku Zenzu," Sg^H-^H, by Rin Shihei. i Sheet MS. No 
date, but must be about the end of the eighteenth century. A curious, 
grotesquely incorrect old map of Yezo, the Kuriles, and contiguous northern 
lands. The compiler is celebrated as the author of the " San-goku Tsuran,'* 
which was long the standard Japanese work on Yezo, Korea, and Loochoo. 

129.— "Ezo Konjaku Monogatari,'* Sg^^^$^f§, by John Batchelor. 1884. 
I Vol. print. A concise account of the Ainos. 

130— ''EzoKoshiHosh6ki,''ig^:^:p®g|E. i Vol. MS. (It also contains 
other matter.) Anecdotes of Ainos remarkable for their filial piety 

131.— "Ezo Koteiki,'' *S^fir©IE, by Abe Sho5.- 1856. 2 Vols, print, 
illust. Gives itineraries and other information useful to the traveller in 
Yezo, Saghalien, and the Southern Kuriles. Tokugawa. Chamberlain. 

132.— "Ezo Kyubun," Sg ^ ff W» by Suzuki Yoshinori. 1854. i Vol. MS. 
A work on the geography of Yezo and the customs of the Ainos. Sap- 

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133.—'' Ezo Maki-zu," Jg ^ ^fc H- ^ Sheet MS. A map. Tokugavva. 
134.— "Ezo Matsumae-Garasu/* Jg^fetJj^. 5 Vols. MS. Treats of the 

geography and productions of Yezo, and of the chase as practised by the 

Ainos. Bureau of Records. 

135.—'' Ezo Matsumae-Jima no Ki," Sg ^ fe flj lb IE- 1764. i Vol. MS. A 
general account of that part of Yezo which was subject to the House of 
Matsumae. Bureau of History. 

136.—* " Ezo Mi-tori Ezu," Sg ^ ;M. K ft H- 3 Vols. MS. illust. Illustrations 
of the West Coast of Yezo, from Matsumae to Soya. Bureau of Records. 

137. — '* Ezo Monogatari," !lg5l^fn* by Tagusagawa Denjiro. 1798. i Vol. 
MS. An account of Yezo by one of the Shogun's officials who was sent 
there on a tour of inspection. Bureau of History. 

138.— '* Ezo Nendaiki," Jg^^f^ffi, by Matsuura Takeshiro. 1870. i 
Vol. print. Annals of the Ainos compiled from Japanese historical sources. 
Tokugawa. Chamberlain. 

139.— "Ezo Nikki," (g5| B K, by Muto Kanzo. 1798. i Vol. MS. Diary 
of a tour of inspection in Yezo by some officials of the Shogun's govern- 
ment. It forms Vol. V. of a work entitled "Seisai Kojutsu Zasshi." 
Bureau of History. 

140.—'* Ezo Nikki/' ^ Sg B ffi, by Koyama Kisei. 1809. i Vol. (or 2 Vols.) 
MS. Diary of a journey from Matsumae to Nemuro, with statistics. 
Bureau of History. Hakodate. 

141. — ''Ezo Nikki," tg^ B SB* i Vol. MS. A catechism on the customs of 
the Ainos. Educational Museum. 

142.— ''Ezo Nisshi Furoku," 4g^ B IS HJ^i by Matsuura Takeshiro. 1850. 
Vol. MS. with maps. An enquiry into the meaning of the name " Yezo/^ 
together with considerations on the history of the island. Tokugawa. 

143.— "Ezo no Michikusa," Sg^®MF^. i Vol. MS. illustrated. A lady's 
diary of a journey from Yedo to Hakodate and back, to see her husband. 
She describes in classical style the beauties of Matsushima, the frontier 
stone between the Japanese and the Ainos at Taga, and the aspect of the 
Ainos at Hakpdate. Hakodate. 

144.—" Ezo no Michi-shirube," Sg 5l5i^^» by Yamada Ren. 1801. i Vol. 
MS. A passionate appeal for the necessity of Japan's colonizing Yezo, 
and thus forestalling the designs of Russia and other countries. Bureau 
of History. Chamberlain. Sapporo. 

145.—" Ezo no Shima-bumi," Jg 51 © i% ffi» by Fukui Yoshimaro. 1 Vol. MS. 
illustrated. Describes from personal experience the national features, 
productions, customs, etc., of the various islands inhabited by the Ainos. 
Educational Museum. 

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146.— '*Ezo no Zu narabi ni Hakodate Shinkei,'* ^%:^^^^^^^' 2 
Scrolls. A map, or rather picture, of the coast of Southern Yezo from 
Mount Usu to Hakodate, with representations of the inhabitants. Toku- 

147. — "Ezo Ranki," Jg 51 SI SB- i Vol. MS. A short account of various 
Aino rebellions, and summary of the history of the House of Matsumae. 

148. — '' Ezo Ran Kiji," Wi^%^'^- Anonymous and without date, i Vol. 
MS. An account of the Aino revolt under Shagushamu in 1669. Vol. VIII. 
of a work entitled ** Iro Monogatari.'' Bureau of History. 

149.—'* Ezo Ran Ko,^' Jg ^ %^/' by Tamazukuri Hirafumi. i Vol. Mito. 

150. — " Ezo Ran Todoke-sho,'* Wi^fLM ^- Some time between 1804 and 
1818. I Vol. MS. illustrated. A report on Russian aggression, and the 
necessity of defending the north of the Empire. Hakodate. 

151.—" Ezo Ran Tori-shirabe Nikki," jg 5I|SL IR P B IE- 1789. i Vol. 
MS. An account of a rising in Kunashiri. Educational Museum. 

152.— "Ezo Reki," Jg^Jg, by Okadaya Kisaku. 1856. i Vol print, illust. 
A curious old almanac. Tokugawa. 

153. — "EzoRidan,'' jg^ffiUJ. 1739. i Vol. MS. A general account of 
Yezo and the Ainos. Bureau of History. 

154. — '* Ezo Ryakusetsu,'' jig ^ ^Ift- i Vol. MS. Extracts relating to Yezo 
from the " Sangoku Tsuran.'' Bureau of History. 

155.—" Ezo Sangyo Zusetsu,'' WiM^MM^^ by Kane Miho. 1875. i Vol. 
MS. illustrated.- Treats of the superficial aspect of Aino life. Sapporo. 

156.— '^ Ezo Sangyo Zusetsu,'^ WiM^MU^- 3 Vols. MS. illustrated. 
Treats of the manners and customs of the Ainos. Sapporo. 
'' Ezo Sansui np Zu,'' Sg ^ ill JiJC ©. i Vol. Mito. , 


-" Ezo Shi," Jg Jl ^, by Arai Hakuseki. 1862 ; but the MS. dates from 

early in the i8th century, i Vol. print. A sketch in Chinese of the Ainos 
and the islands they inhabit. Chamberlain. Hakodate. 

159.— ^^Ezo-ShimaKikan,'' MM^^U- 3 Vols. MS. illustrated. A faithful 
and beautifully illustrated account of the manners and customs of the 
Ainos. Sapporo. 

160.— *' Ezo Shima Monogatari," iS^M&^^- i Vol. MS. Treats of the 
customs and language of the Ainos. Educational Museum. 

161.—" Ezo Shinkyo Kibun," MMlSiU^M- i Vol. MS. Official records 
of the administration of the Aino country from the year 1799. Bureau of 

162.— ^'^EzoShiryo," H^M^^, by Maeda Kensuke. 1866. 210 Vols. MS. 

Digitized by 



An exhaustive account of the Ainos and the islands inhabit, compiled as 
materials for a complete history. Interior. 

163. — "Ezo Shorui," jg ^ :^ ^, compiled by Mukoyama Seisai. i Vol. A 
collection of documents relative to Yezo and the north generally, from 1802 
to 1855. It forms Vol. VI. of a work en tilled ** Heishin Zassetsu." Bureau 
of History. 

164.—*' Ezo S5jo Ki," iS ^ IS SItE. 1789. I Vol. MS. Treats of a rising in 
Kunashiri. Bureau of History. 

165.—*' Ezo Sojo Teiho," Jg J| ^ S fi5 #. 1807. i Vol. MS. Official de^paches 
relative to the Russian incursion in 1807. Bureau of History. 

166. — '' Ezo Sokin," (g^^^, by Muk5yama Seisai. About 1854. i Vol. 
MS. Treats of the taxation of Yezo from 1841 to 1854. Forms Vol. IV. 
of a work entitled '* Toyo Ittoku.'' Bureau of History. 

167.— ^^ Ezo Soko,'' t^%^^, by Kashimura Kantsu. 1850. 6 Vols. MS. 
A collection of various works relating to Yezo, viz., the ** Ezo Shi,*' 
^^Matsumae Shi,*' '* Hen-y5 Bunkai,** '^ Zuk5,'* " Shikozu,'* *' Shoka 
Fubun,** and " Ezo Junran Hikki.** Tokugawa. 

168.—*^' Ezo S5moku Fu," H^M^^W- ^ Vol. MS. illust. Carefully coloured 
representations of Yezo plants and flowers, with the Aino name of each. 
Bureau of Records. 

169.—'* Ezo Soran Ki,** jg ^ ^ ?t IB Vol. MS. Treats of the appearance of 
foreign ships in Yezo waters. Bureau of Records. 

170. — ** Ezo Soshi,** Sg ^ ^ IK/' by Mogami Tokunai. 2 Vols. MS. A treatise 
on racial differences among the Ainos, and on their practice of polygamy. 

171.— '*Ezo Taibun,** Jg ^ ^ ^. i Vol. MS. Replies to official enquiries 
touching the geography and productions of Yezo. Bureau of History. 

172.—" Ezo T5bu Nikki,** B?>f^]RiSR B IB, by Sakakibara Keizo. i Vol. MS. 
A work on the geography of Eastern Yezo. Sapporo. 

1 73.—" Ezo Tonan Kaihen Ritei Zu,** *g ^ :ft ^ ifj Jft M 5g H, by Ino Kage- 
yu. 1800. 10 Sheets. A large map of the portion of Yezo subject to the 
House of Matsumae. Geographical Bureau. 

174.— *''EzoT5zai Kosho,** WiMM'^^^f by Maeda Kensuke. 1854. i 
Vols. MS. An enquiry into the original forms of the place-names of 
Eastern and Western Yezo, and of the Kuriles as far as Urup. Bureau of 
Records. Sapporo. 

175.—*^ Ezo Zakki,** if >f^i| SB- 1677. 7 Vols. MS. A condensed translation, 
by Baba Sadayoshi, of the information concerning Yezo and the North 
contained in Dutch books of geography. Bureau of History. 

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176. — " Ezo Zakki/' JS ^ SIIB- 1 Vol. MS. An account of the Russian incur- 
sion in 1807. Bureau of History. 

177. — " Ezo Zassho/* JS 5II6^- 2 Vols. MS. Treats of the ceremonial and 
judicial customs of the Ainos. Sapporo. 

178. — '* Ezo Zenzu/' ^ JS ^ Bi» ^^7 Mamiya Rinzo. Anonymous, i Sheet MS. 
A map of Yezo and the Southern Kuriles. Educational Museum. 

179. — ** Ezo-koku Fuzoku Ninj5 no Sata," 4^51 W* IK- Educational Museum. 

iSo.— *^Ezo Zoshi Kohen/' *SII W<K I^S [^ H #], bj Mogami Tokunai. 
1800. I Vol. MS. [There are four other smaller MSS. in the Vol., besides 
the one whose title is here given.] Contains notes on Russian incursions 
and also on peaceable intercourse between Yezo and the mainland of 
Asia. Tokugawa. Hakodate. 

i8i.— **Ezo Zoshi ShSsho," ig^^|K4J?S^, by Mogami Tsunenori. i Vol. 

182.—'* Ezo Zu," *S ^ H- I Vol. Mito. 

183.— ^* Ezo Zusetsu," SSJIHIg;, (also entitled '^J5yoshQ.*0 3 Vols. MS. 
illust. Letter-press explanatory of quaint coloured illustrations showing the 
Aino method of cutting tnaOi of making houses, clothes and boats, and of 
seal-hunting. Chamberlain. 

184. — '* Ezo Zusetsu," 4^^015^. 2 Vols. MS. A scanty vocabulary of Aino 
words. Hakodate. 

185.—** Ezo Zuihitsu,*' *S ^ SI ^- I Vol. Mito. 

186.—'' Fuki-Nagasare no Ki,^' ^^^Wtlttty 1763. 6 Vols. MS. The last 
volume contains an account of an Aino rebellion. Tokugawa. 

187. — ***Fukuyama Hifu," jj® |i| |if jj^, by Minamoto no Hironaga. 1862. 8 
Vols. MS. Contains regulations respecting the Ainos, and the treatment 
of shipwrecked persons, together with notes on the natural productions of 
Yezo and on the manners and customs of the natives. Sapporo. 

188. — " Fukuyama Hifu Nuki-gaki,*' j^ |i| Iff jfl^ ® #• Minamoto no Hironaga. 
I Vol. MS. Annals of the House of Matsumae from A.D. 1443 to 1780, 
extracted from secret family documents. Matsumae. 

189.—'' Fukuyawa Ryujiki," JH Ul S ^ E- ^ Vol. MS. A short account of the 
House of Matsumae, including revolts of the Ainos. Hakodate. 

190. — "Geological Notes," by H. S. Munroe. Tokio, 1876. i Vol. print. 
Published by the Kaitakushi. Treats of the geology of Yezo. 

191. — *'* Geological Sketch Map of the Island of Yezo," by B. S. Lyman and 
Japanese assistants. 1876. i Sheet print. Published by the Kaitakushi. 

192.— **Goso Kibun," ^ "S ffi W- ^ Vols. MS. An account of the bringing 

Digitized by 



to Yezo by the Russians of some fishermen from Ise, who had been picked 
up at sea. Educational Museum. 

193. — "Goy5-muki Hikae/* ^^IrJIB- I797- i Vol. MS. Details of the 
ships, troops, etc., used by the Japanese on the occasions of the Russian 
incursions in the last century. Matsumae. 

194.—" Hakodate Hanj5ki,'* ® fg^ ^ SB. by Takasu Kokuho. 1884. 2 Vols, 
print. An account of the prosperity of Hakodate. Chamberlain. 

195. — *** Hakodate Oki no Kuchi yori Chindai ni Itaru Zu,*' |g® ft|i / P ^ »; 
^^ ^ ^ ^^M- Anonymous and without date, i Scroll MS. A curious 
map of Hakodate. Bureau of History. 

196.—*'* Hakodate Shi-kaigan Zu," |& g& iff jft ^ g. i Scroll MS. A curious 
map of Hakodate. Bureau of History. 

197.— "Hayashi Shibata Ryoshi Josho,'' |f:^ BM R ±Wtf^WiW' i Vol. 
MS. (also containing other matter.) Memorials treating of the Russian 
question. Hakodate. 

198. — " Hekiky5roku,'' ^ j^ fjj, by Namikawa Temmin. i Vol. MS. A report 
on the advisability of opening up the Island of Yezo. Hakodate. 

199. — *^' Henkai Sosho," Jft^^^, (also called **Ezo-koku Kikan,*')by Hada 
no Okumaro, i860. 8 maps. The letter-press to these curious maps 
of Yezo and the adjacent islands gives various information concerning the 
customs, etc., of the Ainos. Tokugawa. 

200. — " Henkai Sosho,'' ift ^^ tt^- ^7 Vols. MS. A collection of documents 
relating to Yezo. Tokugawa. 

201. — ** Henkei Kibun,'' 5ift ^ i^ ^. 2 Vols. MS. Treats of Japanese dealings 
with the Russians in the North, from the first delimitation of frontiers to 
the time of the Russian aggressions on Saghalien and Itorup. Educational 

202.—'' Hensaku Shiben,'' ^ |g -f/, ^, by Habuto Seiyo. 1802. i Vol. MS. 
A refutation of the opinion that the Northern possessions of Japan are 
useless to the Central Government. Bureau of History. 

203. — Hensei Biran,"j§ 10^^12. by Uniiho Gengi. Some time between 1854 
and i860. MS. bound up with " Hokusei Nisshi," 4ktiE B |S» by Nishi- 
ema Masamichi. 1801. MS. Together forming i Vol. These MSS. 
treat of the necessity of the development of Yezo by the Central Govern- 
ment. Hakodate. 

204. — " Hen-yo Bunkai Zuko," ^ ^ ^ ^ ^, by Kond5 Morishige. 1804. 
7 Vols, (or Vols.) MS. illustrated. Contains topographical information 
concerning Yezo and the north generally. Sapporo. Tokugawa. 

205.— ''Hen yo Bunkai Zuko Sho,'' ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ |^, by Kondo Morishige. 
I Vol. MS. Notes on and addenda to the " Hen-yo Bunkai Zuko." 


Digitized by 



206.— '^ Higashi Ezo-chi Basho Uke-oi-nin Moshi-age/' ]|f jg ^ Jfi J^^IS ft 
A ^Jl> 1S55. I Vol. MS. A collection of reports by the men to whom 
the Yezo fisheries were farmed out. Such subjects as the state of the 
fisheries, the climate, etc., are treated of. Hakodate. 

207.—'' Higashi Yezo Chimei Ki/' ]K4E ^ i^ ^ ^, i Vol. MS. Explains the 
meanings of all the place-names from Yamakoshi on Volcano Bay to Itorup. 
Educational Museum. 

208.— *' Higashi Ezo Chimei Ko," MWi^O^^^^ by Hada no Aokimaro. 
1808. I Vol. M.S. An explanation of the meaning of Aino place-names. 
Bureau of History. 

209.— '* Higashi Ezo-chi Usu Yamayake Kembun Sho," iK^S^^^^^lUJ^ 
^^^. I Vol. MS. Gives the results of an official enquiry into the 
eruption of Mount Usu. Bureau of Records. 

210. — " Higashi Ezo Kunashiri-jima no Ran,'' J^ iK ^ ^ "^ ^ ^-^ UlS ^L- ^ Vol. 
MS. An account of the landing and repulse of the Russians on Kunashiri. 
Educational Museum. 

211. — *** Higashi Ezo Nisshi," ^ S^ 51 B |Si by Matsuura Takeshiro. 1863- 
1864. 5 Vols, print, illustrated. Contains topographical and geographical 
information concerning Eastern Yezo. Sapporo. Tokugawa. 

212.— '^Higashi Ezo ShCiran," 'MtS^MJ^TL by To no Tomofumi. 1801. i 
Vol. MS. Treats of the necessity of developing industry among the Ainos ; 
also of their customs, of the climate, and of other matters. Bureau of Re- 
cords. Sapporo. 

213.— *' Higashi Ezo Yawa,";^tgJ| ^ IS*, by Ouchi Hirosada. i86f. 3 Vols, 
print illustrated. Treats of the customs and origin of the Ainos, whom 
the author studied at Akkeshi. Bureau of History. Sapporo. 

214.— '' Hokkaido Chiri Sh5shi," ft ?{} ^ ^ M >M:^., by Imai Ki. 1881. 4 
Vols, print. A geography of Yezo. Educational Museum. 

215.— '* Hokkaido Chishima no Kuni Shoto Mitori-zu/' ft ^ 5^=f^ H|| ^ ^ HI 
;^^^- A scroll, apparently copper-plate, giving a panorama of the 
Kurile Islands. No letter-press. Sapporo. 

216.— ''Hokkaid5 Enkaku K5," ftJ£JMt&J^^- i?77- i Vol. MS. An 
account of the various changes in the relations of the Japanese with the 
Ainos, from the 7th century of the Christian era to the year 1876, together 
with statistics. Hakodate. 

217.— "Hokkaido Gunku Kaisei ChSson Ritei Meiroku," ft ?S M SP H^ Bfc IE 
Wr>H*MS-^^' by Tamogami Togo. 1884. i Vol. print illustrated, 
(lives the names, distances, number of houses, etc., of the towns and 
villages in Yezo. Chamberlain. 

218. — ** Hokkaido Jissoku Zu.*' Published by the Staff Bureau of the Imperial 

Digitized by 



Japanese War-Office. 1881. i sheet print. A map of Yezo, with the 
chief names in Chinese characters. 

219.—^' Hokkaido Kigyo Yoroku," itMMMM'^M^ ^^7 Suzuki Dai and Mori 
Shigelo. 1883. 1 Vol. print. Treats of the geography, climate, and 
natural productions of Yezo. Educational Museum. Chamberlain. 

220. — ** Hokkaido Kokugun Zu/' 4k}&?E®SIJ@» by Matsuura Takeshiro. 
i86g. I sheet. A map of Yezo. Library of the Museum of the Imperial 
Household Department. 

221.—*'* Hokkaido Rekikenzu/' 41; ^ ?S ffi ^ U- Consists of beautifully exe- 
cuted coloured pictures of the coast of Yezo. By Megata Morikage. 187 1. 
2 Vols. MS. Beautifully bound. Sapporo. 

222.—* '• Hokkaido Shi/' ^fc^ Jg j^, by Ino Chuko, published by the Kaitakushi. 
1884. 25 Vols, print, with maps and plans. An exhaustive compilation 
of almost every kind of information concerning Yezo and its inhabitants. 
The only important subjects omitted are the language and traditions of the 
Ainos. The statistics given are particularly valuable. 

223.— " Hokkaido Suiro Shi," ft^^Ibl^KHS, by Take Tomifumi. 1873. 

I Vol. print. Contains topographical information concerning, the coast of 

Yezo. Sapporo. 
224.— '* Hokkaido Yoran," fll^Jt^^. 2 Vols, print. A work on the 

geography, state, and resources of Yezo. Educational Museum. 

225. — '* Hokkaido Zenzu," 4kiSjiE'^0» by Tamogami Togo. 1879. i Vol. 
print. A map .of Yezo and the Kuriles with statistical information in the 
margin. Chamberlain. 

226.—'' Hokkaiki," 41: iJf fg. I Vol. Mito. 

227.—'* Hokkai Kikan Sho," 4k 9* ^ Si iP, and " Ezo Miyage," *g ^ I ^ y', 
1672. I Vol. MS. illustrated. An account of an official tour through 
Yezo. Hakodate. 

228.—* '^ Hokkai Kik5,'' 41: JS ijG fr. by Hayashi Kenzo. 1874. 6 Vols, print. 
Illustrated and with maps. A careful account of Yezo and its inhabitants. 

229. — * " Hokkai Rekikenzo," 4k ^6 M Ife ffl- Consists of beautifully executed 
coloured pictures of the coast of Saghalien. This beautifully bound 
work is uniform with the " Hokkaido Rekikenzu." Sapporo. 

230.— '* Hokkai Shobunten," 4kiS>hjJC:ft. by Nagata Hosei. 1883. i Vol. 
print. A short Aino grammar composed on the tr^iditional European 
model. Chamberlain. 

231. — :" Plokkai Uhaku Ki," 4k M !^ fiti tfi- ^^43- % Matsumoto Tanechika. 
*'Kansakka Shi,'' M^Ml^^- ^^^4- By Maeno Ryotaku. Six other 
MSS. all anonymous and without date, i Vol. MS. Incidentally to 

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an account of the various Dutch and Russian landings on the Japanese 
coast, the first MS. discusses the Ainos. The second describes Kamtchatka 
and its inhabitants. Hakodate. 

232. — ** Hokkai Zuihitsu," ^fc^Bfi^- ^739- 3 Vols. MS. with maps. A 
genetal account of the Ainos, and of their relations with the Japanese at 
Matsumae. Hakodate. 

233.— *' Hok'kai Zuihitsu,*' ^fcJUBi^, and " Karafuto-jima Zakki.'^ (Illus- 
trated). The first of these two has no date ; the second is from 1790. i 
Vol. MS. The first gives a short general account of Yezo and its inhabi- 
tants. The second deals in a similar manner with Saghalien. Hakodate. 

234.—'^ Hokkai Zuihitsu," itMM^' 1876. I Vol. MS. Treats of the pro- 
ductions of Yezo, and of the customs and language of the Ainos. Bureau 
of Records. 

235.^ — ^ '' Hokkei Shoshi," ^fc ^ >Jn |J., by Yamamoto Rin. 2 Vols. MS. Contains 
the official correspondence on the subject of the Russian attack on Yezo 
in 1807, together with a diary of events and the popular songs and squibs 
to which the occurrence gave rise. Chamberlain. Hakodate. 

236.—'^ Hokkei Shoshi Sho," ^t f[E >Mg ij;, by Yamamoto Rin. 2 Vols. MS. 
Correspondence concerning the state of the Island of Itorup and the con- 
duct of the Japanese officials stational there. Educational Museum. 

237.— *' Hokuchi Hen-yo Bunkai Zuko Shosai,'' ^k^jftH^^H^WSfi. 
I scroll MS. A map of Saghalien, showing the Japanese settlements there 
early in the present century. Tokugawa. 

238.—'' Hokuchi Jikki,'' fl: ^ ^ IE, 2 Vols. MS. An account of a Russian 
descent on Itorup. Bureau of Records. 

239. — *' Hokuchi Kaiho Moshi-age," ® % ?^ ^ J:, by Hori Oribe no Sho 
and others. 1854. 2 Vols. MS. Report of an official tour in Eastern and 
Northern Yezo. Educational Museum. 

240.—'* Hokuchi Nikki,*' fl: % B IE- See *' Kentatsu Monogatari." 

241.—'* Hokuchi Ryakki,*' ^t % K& IB, by "Shukei.'' i Vol. MS. A slight 
sketch of Yezo. Forming Vol. II. of a work entitled '* Heishin Zakki." 
Bureau of History. 

242.— '* Hokuchi Shigen,*' 4k ^^ZW* by Tokai Inshi. 1878 i Vol. MS- 
Treats of the fisheries and agriculture of Yezo. Bureau of Records. 

243.—** Hokuei Bik5," ^tWfll^^ Yamada Ren. 1809. 4 Vols. MS. A sort 
of commentary on previous Japanese and Chinese notices of the Ainos. 
Bureau of History. 

244.— *' Hokuei Zusetsu Shuran,'' ^kWHIft^^' by Yamada Ren. 1809. 
I Vol. MS. with maps. A work on the geography of Yezo and the north, 
founded partly on Chinese and Dutch maps. Educational Bureau. 

Digitized by 



245.—'' Hokuhan Fudoki, fl: ^ JH ± Ifi. i Vol MS. An account of the geo- 
graphy and productions of that portion of Yezo which was under the in- 
fluence of the House of Matsumae. Bureau of Records. 

246.— ** Hokuhen Goko/' 4t5ft^^» by Yamada Ren. Between 1804 and 
18 18. 9 Vols. MS. A compilation from various Japanese and Chinese 
sources of information concerning Yezo, Manchuria, and Russia. Bureau 
of History. 

247.— " Hokuken Kibun,'' fl:^ft ffi. 11 Vols. MS. Treats in detail of the 
various complications caused by Russian aggression in Yezo and the 
Kuriles from the year 1797 to early in the present century. Educational 

248.— '' Hokuhen Kibun Nuki-gaki/' ftjftfcW^*- i Vol. MS. A con- 
densed copy of the " Hokuhen Kibun.'' Educational Museum. 

249.— -^^ *' Hokui Bunkai Yowa," fl: J| ^ ^ #, fj, by Mamiya Rinzo. 1808— 
i8og. 10 Sheets illustrated. An account of the author's explorations on 
the Russian frontier in Saghalien, and on the mainland of Siberia. Bureau 
of History. 

250.—* '^ Hokui Dan," ^t ^ |SE. by Matsuda Shirozaemon. 6 Vols, (or 7) MS. 
Early in the present century. Illustrated. Contains valuable information 
concerning Aino festivals, rearing of children, fishing, hunting, and funeral 
ceremonies. Educational Museum. Sapporo. 

251.— ** Hokui Kiko," ^jfc^fcff. 3 Vols. MS. 'The '^ Kita Ezo Zusetsu " 
under another name. Bureau of History. 

252. — " Hokkui Kosho," 4fc5l^@i by Takahashi Kageyasu. 1809. i Vol. 
MS. With maps. A work on the cartography of Yezo. Forms Vol. III. 
of a work entitled ''Suien Zatsuroku." Bureau of History. Hakodate. 

253.— *' Hokumei Kiko," fl:}3|ftfT. 1857. i Vol. MS. An account of an 
official journey from Echigo into Yezo. Hakodate. 

254.—*' Hokumon Jiji," :fk P^ ^^, by Fukumoto Makoto. 1882. i Vol. print. 
Diary of a journey in Yezo. Educational Museum. 

255.—" Hokumon Kyumu," fl: P^ ^|J, by Okamoto Fumihira. 1878. 2 Vols, 
print. Illustrated. A treatise advocating the thorough colonization of Yezo 
by the Japanese, and kind treatment of the Ainos. Interior. Sapporo. 

256.—^' Hokumon Shigi," fl; p^ ^j; m, '' Hozan." 1881. i Vol. MS. A treatise 
on the manner of developing the resources of the Island of Yezo. Sapporo. 

257. — '*Hokusa Ibun," 4k^MW> by Sasamoto Ren. 2 Vols. MS. An ac- 
count of Siberia and the Russians by some Japanese from Yezo who had 
been shipwrecked there. Educational Museum. 

258. — ** Hokusai Hyodan," ft RJ SI SS* by Kawakami Chikanobu. 5 Vols. Mito. 

Digitized by 



259— '' Hokusa ShSroku/' ^f^>hMf by ^' Aima Shujin." i Vol. MS. An 
account of the Russian incursion in 1807. Bureau of Records. 

260.— " Hokuteki Jiryaku/' it¥i^W^ by ''Zoy5 Rojin.*' 1792. 10 Vols. 
MS. A compilation, from various sources, of information concerning the 
Russians, whose ships had appeared in Northern Japanese waters. Bureau 
of Records. 

261.— "Hokusui KiyG," i^Wk^Wr by *^ T5y5 Konso.'* 1807. i Vol. MS. 
An account, in Chinese, of overtures of intercourse made by the Russians 
and refused by the Japanese, and of the hostile incursion on the coast of 
Yezo by the Russians in 1807. Bureau of History. Hakodate. 

262.— '*HokusuiKyoikiKankeiSh5roku,'*fl:HliJ^ga^,f>^. 1852. i Vol. 
MS. Contains official correspondence on the question of the boundary- 
line between Japan and Russia. Hakodate. 

263.—* ^' Hokuteki Haikan," ft |^ flip Bf , by Isshiki Hironobu. 1856. 15 Vols. 
MS. illustrated. A minute account of Russian acts of aggression in the 
North-East, from the earliest times down to the conquest of Kamschatka 
and to the threatened annexation of the Kurile Islands ; and more particu- 
larly of the attack on Yezo in the year 1807. The author's contention is 
that the opening of Japan would be the best way to prevent the recurrence 
of such incidents. Chamberlain. 

264.— " Hokuto Shi,'' ft^ii, by Toyoda Ry5. 1854. 4 Vols, print. This 
work, which is in Chinese, treats of Aino history and customs ancient and 
modern. Tokugawa. Chamberlain. Sapporo. 

265.—'' Hokuyaki," ft 5^ IB- i Vol. Mito. 

266.— "Honda Shi Sakuron Ezo JQi," 7^^ R^fStV^M^'M^ by Honda 
Toshiakira. 1789. i Vol. MS. A plea for the development of the agri- 
cultural resources of Yezo. Bureau of History. 

267.— "Hyokai ShGtSki," jJC ?S SI S IB, by Shinraku Kanso. 1807. i Vol. 
MS. An account by an eye-witness of the Russian incursion on Itorup in 
1807. Bureau of History. 

268. — '* Igen Zokuwa," ^ W i?Sfi&» by Kushihara Seiho. 1792. 2 (or 3) Vols. 
MS. Aino traditions, etc., picked up by the author during an official tour 
in Yezo. Bureau of Records. 

269.— 'Mkoku Orai Ryakufu," ^g^^^tf, by Tsuda Masamichi. 1854. 
3 Vols. MS. An account of an Aino rising in Itorup and of consequent com- 
plications with the Russians, together with the assumption of the manage- 
ment of Yezo affairs by the Central Government. Educational Museum. 

270. —** Iran Jiryaku," WifiL^W^ by Kusano Bichu. Some time between 
1807 and 1818. I Vol. MS. An account of the Russian incursion on the 
Island of Yezo in the year 1807, and of the military defence made by the 
Japanese Central Government. Hakodate. 

Digitized by 



271. — '* Ishikari Nisshi," ^ ^ B |S» by Matsuura Takesliiro. i860, i Vol. 
print illustrated. An account of the geography and productions of the 
province of Ishikari in Yezo, and of the customs of the natives. Tokugawa. 

272.— *'Ito Kentatsu Hikki," f^0M.M^tE» by Ito Kentatsu. 1807. i 
Vol. MS. An account, from personal observation, of the Russian incur- 
sion on Itorup in 1807. Bureau of History. 

273. — * *' lyu RetsuzS no Zu,'* ^ @>?!l fft PJ, by Matsumae Hironaga. 1790. i 
Vol. hand-drawn pictures, and i Vol. letter-press. Portraits and short 
memoirs of twelve Aino chiefs who sided with the Japanese on the occa- 
sion of an Aino rising in 1789. Tokugawa. 

274.—^ *' Japan in Yezo,'' by T. W. Blakiston. Yokohama, 1883. i Vol. This 
work, which first appeared as a series of articles in the Japan Gazette 
newspaper, gives an account of the author's travels in Yezo from A.D. 
1862 to 1882, with observations on natural history, the manners and cus- 
toms of the natives, and many other subjects of interest. 

275. — "Japan nach Reisen and Studien,'Vby J. J. Rein. Leipzig, 1881. 2 
Vols. Gives, passim^ information concerning Yezo and the Ainos, 

276. — "*^*' Japan Yezo Islands Coast of Hokkaido,'* by Yoshida Susumu. 1883. 
I Sheet print. A coloured map of Yezo, with the names in Roman and in 
Chinese characters. 

277.— "Jissoku Ezo-chi Keii Do," ;gf jg} Jg J| %^ ^jg, by Shibukawa Kage- 
suke. 1854. I (or 3) Vol. MS. Considerations on the surveys of Yezo, 
from the time of the Dutch to that of Ino Kageyu and Mamiya Rinzo. 
Tokugawa. Chamberlain. 

278.— '* Kaibo Igi," ^ gJ5f 1^ m, by Shioda Taijun-an. 1849. i Vol. MS. A 
collection of reports by the various daimyos on the best means of defending 
Japan (including Yezo) against the outer barbarians. Sapporo. 

279.—" Kaibo Shiyo Hitsuroku," ?{} gjjr ^. ^ |8 ||. 2 Vols. MS. An account 
of the capture and sending to Matsumae of twenty-seven Russians who had 
created a disturbance on Itorup. Educational Museum. 

280.—'' KaifQ Maru Ezo Kiki-gaki," 'K M :^ *S ^ ^ W i Vol. Mito. 
281.— ''KaifQ Maru no Ki,'' '^ ft :^IE- i Vol. Mito. 

282.—" KaifQsen Hyokai Kiji," ^ ® jfe fJ^ J^ IB ^. 1688. i Vol. MS. Diary 

of a Japanese Government vessel in Northern waters. Tokugawa. 

283.—" Kaigai Ibun," JS^JSJ ^. 2 Vols. Mito. 

284.— *"Kaitakushi Jigyo H5koku,'' |§ f H <S5 ^Ml # i§ • Published by the 
Finance Department. 1885. 7 Vols, print wilh maps. A compilation 
including almost all subjects referring to Yezo, excepting the language. 
The work is written from an exclusively official administrative point of 

Digitized by 



view. The appendix consists of a collection of edicts referring to the 
government of the island. 

285.—*' Kakuyu Kiji/* SI jfl fc ^. 1799. i Vol. MS. An account of a battue 
of bears in Yezo. Tokugawa. 

286.— "Kambun Ezo Ranki/' K jJCSS Jl SfL IB- i Vol. MS. An account of 
the Aino revolt in the seventh decade of the seventeenth century. Edu- 
cational Museum. 

287.—** Kamushatsuka Ki,'^ jK # 1$ IB- 1789. i Vol. MS. A translation of 
the article on Kamschatka in a Dutch geography book. Bureau of History. 

288.—'' Kankaroku Furoku/' ift i^^ |^ ^. 1803. i Vol. MS. An account 
of Russian aggression in Saghalien and Itorup. Educational Museum. 

289. — ^^ '' Kankoku Roku," 8l g ^. 4 Vols. MS. illustrated. A general treatise 

on Yezo and the Ainos. Sapporo. 
290. — *' Karafuto Etorofu Bannin Kuchi-gaki," ^;^ ^ g ;g.;|5p ^^ p ^. 

'^Nambu Kashi Omurajigohei Kuchi-gaki," ■^^1^^:^ ^Jt J&S^p p «• 

291.— "Karafuto Gairan Furoku," IpJ iciE^ f# i(, by Megata Tatewaki. 8 
Vols. MS. A geography of Saghalien. Sapporo. 

292.— '' Karafuto Gairan Nihen/' ^iciElt — IS- 32 Vols. MS. An ac- 
count of the doings of the Russians in Saghalien until the time of the 
cession of the island to them. Sapporo. 

293. — " Karaf uto Gairan Shohen," IpT :5k fit IE ^ ^- 5 Vols. MS. One or two 
illustrations. Contains an account of the first settlement of the Russians 
in Kamschatka and of their incursions into Saghalien. Sapporo. 

294. — *' Karaf uto Jijo," ^ ^ ^ ^K- i Vol. MS. Notes of enquiries made con- 
cerning the Santan (Gilyaks ?) and Oroks, two races inhabiting Saghalien. 

295.—'' Karafuto-Jima Zakki/' K W # tt ^ SH IE- i790- i Vol. MS. with 
maps. An account of a journey up the West coast of Yezo and across to 
Shiranushi in southern Sagalien, with details of the customs and produc- 
tions of the latter island. Bureau of History. Tokugawa. 

296.—" Karafuto Junkai Ki," j^ :5k jjij Isl IB. ^y Nishimura Denkuro. 1865. i 
Vol. MS. An account of personal experiences in Saghalien. Hakodate. 

297. — *" Karafuto Nikki/' ^:5k B ^) by Suzuki Shigehisa, with notes and 
addenda by Matsuura Takeshiro. i860. 2 Vols, print illustrated. A 
good general account of Saghalien and its inhabitants, founded on the 
personal experiences of the two authors, whose journeys there were made 
at different times. Matsuura's notes give the native Aino etymology of the 
place-names of Saghalien. Hakodate. Tokugawa. Chamberlain. 

Digitized by 



298.— '* Karafuto Tsuji Moshi-age-sho," |l:5k?l^ ^ J:#> by Nakamura 
Koichiro. i Vol. MS. with maps: Apropos of the arrival in Saghalien of 
some natives of Santan, (Gilyaks?), the author details enquiries made by 
him touching Santan and Manchuria, and also gives information concerning 
Saghalien itself. Hakodate. 

299.— '^Karyo Fukugi/* ^ ^ ^ %, by Shimizu Toku. 1808. 2 Vols. MS. 
Illustrated. A treatise on the defence of Yezo, prompted by fear of 
foreign invasion. Sapporo. 

300. — ''Kasuga Kiko," ^ H IE fT» by Yanagi Yuetsu. 1871. 4 Vols. MS. 
A diary of a voyage on the coast of Yezo, while the Japanese man-of-war 
**KasugaKan" and H.M.S. " Sylvia" were surveying in company. The 
author was captain of the Japanese vessel. Hakodate. 

301.— ''Kenshu Jochoku Shimatsu," J^ *>H ^ Iff in ?^- '' Hyomin Goran Ki." 
^ .R tSl^lE- 2 MS. forming i Vol. An account of some of the natives 
(Manchus?) of Northern China, and of the shipwreck on the Russian coast 
of some Japanese who were reconducted to Kiitap in Yezo by the Russians, 
and subjected to an official examination by order of the Shogun. Hakodate. 

302— " Kentatsu Monogatari," ;^M^fS, by Kentatsu. 2 Vols. MS. A 
report on the defensive measures taken on the occasion of the Russian de- 
scent on Itorup. This work is also styled " Hokuchi Nikki." Hakodate. 

303.—'' Kimotsuki Shichinoshin Josho," Bf >^ -t ;5: ji Jl S^- 1854. " Hachi- 
nohe K5jaro J5sho," A ^ )? + SR Jt ^- 1853. i Vol. MS. The first 
of these works is a memorial advocating the development of Yezo by the 
establishment there on a large scale of the feudal system then obtaining in 
Japan. The second is likewise a memorial on the advantages likely to 
accrue from developing the resources of the island. Hakodate. 

304.—* " Kinsei Ezo Jimbutsu Shi," ^Ifc Jg J| A %Icn by Matsuura Hiroshi. 
1857. 3 Vols. MS. Illustrated. A collection of anecdotes. Bureau of 
History. Sapporo. 

305.—'' Kisei Ezo Kiko," ^^MM^fs- 1808. 3 Vols. MS. An account 
of Itorup and its inhabitants, interspersed with poetical effusions. Edu- 
cational Museum. 

306.—^^ Kita Ezo Chibu." 4kig ^ ifiSP. 5 (or 10) Vols. MS. with maps. A 
general account of the islands to the North of Japan and of the natives 
inhabiting them, both Ainos and Oroks. I'okugawa. Chamberlain. 

307._^'KitaEzo.chi Go Y5.dome,"fl:J!g^%iaiffi®. 8 Vols. MS. Instruc- 
tions relating to affairs in Saghalien, sent from the Shogun's Government 
to the local officials. Educational Museum. 

308.— *' Kita-Ezo Chizu," 4k^JS;^P, by Mamiya Rinzo. 1810. 7 Sheets 
with I Vol. letter-press. Maps of Saghalien. Bureau of History. 

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309.— ''Kita Ezo-jima no Ido," fttg^^i^Jft. About 1837. i Vol. MS. 
Treats of the conflicting estimates of longitudes in Yezo given by the 
Russians and by the Dutch. Forms Vol. IV. of a work entitled " Toyo 
Ittoku.'* Bureau of History. 

310.—'* Kita Ezo Ki," 4k JS ^ IE- I Vol. Mito. 

311.—'* Kita Ezo Nikki/' 4kiS ^ H IB, 1856. i Vol. MS. Contains statistical 
information concerning Southern Saghalien. Tokugawaj 

3,2.—" Kita Ezo Nikki Slio/' 4k tg ^ H IB ^- Some time between 1865 and 
1868. I Vol. MS. Contains an account of the visit of a Manchu to Yezo, 
and essays on the development of the island. Hakodate. 

313.— "Kita Ezo Ritei Bunken Ch5/' 4k I? j^ M S^ FbI tl- 1835. i Vol. 
MS. Gives distances in Saghalien. Forms Vol. VII. of a work entitled 
*' Heishin Zakki.'* Bureau of History. 

314.—" Kita Ezo Shinshi/' 4k SS ^ ff 5^, ^y Okamoto Fumihira. 1867. i Vol. 
print, illustrated. Treats of the advisability of learning Aino, of the fish- 
ings, and of the measurements of lakes and rivers in Saghalien. Geogra- 
phical Bureau. Sapporo. 

315.— *'Kita Ezo Yoshi,"4kJS^®S|g, byMatsuuraTakeshiro. i860, i Vol. 

print, illustrated. An account of the geography and productions of the 

Island of Saghalien, and of the customs of the natives. Sapporo. Toku- 

316.—" Kita Ezo Zusetsu,'' 4k tS ^ H ife- Compiled by Sada Kado from oral 
information derived from Mamiya Rinzo. 1855. 4 Vols, print, illustrated. 
Treats of the manners and customs of the Ainos of Saghalien. Tokugawa. 

317. — '' Kritische Durchsicht der von Dawidow verfassten Wortersammlung 
aus der Sprache der Ainos, '* by Dr. August Pfizmaier. i Vol. Vienna, 
1852. A critique of Davidow^s Aino vocabulary. 

318.— "Kunashiri Zento no Zu,'* ^ ^ ^. -g^milil. i Sheet MS. A map 
of the Island of Kunashiri in old-fashioned Japanese style. Chamberlain. 

319. — *' Kusuri Nisshi," ^iS B |S» ^Y Matsuura Takeshiro. i860, i Vol. 
print, illustrated. An account of the geography and productions of the pro- 
vince of Kusuri in Yezo, and of the customs of the natives. Hakodate. 

320.— '' Kyowa Shin-yQ Karafuto Jijo,'' i^ft^W^iC^jR- i Vol. MS. 

Notes on the Oroks, one of the races inhabiting Saghalien. Bureau of 

321. — *' Kyudojin Keikyo Gairyaku," i§ i A ^ (JE ^ W» by Ishida Ryosuke. 

1880. I Vol. MS. A short general account of the Ainos, with statistics. 


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1 63 

322.—" Kyuhoku Nisshi," |If 4t H |g, by Okamoto Bumpei. 1871 (1873?) i 
Vol. print. This work, written in Chinese, gives an account of an official 
inspection of the whole island of Snghalien. Appended to the work is an 
essay on the necessity of the development of the resources of the island. 
Educational Museum. Hakodate. 

323. — '*Kyumei Koki," fjC ^ jfe SB. by Habuto Seiyo." 1799-1807. 9 Vols. 
MS. An account of the undertaking by the Shogun's Government, at the 
beginning of'this century, of the sole administration of the Island of Yezo, 
whose defences were entrusted to the author. (It was after a few years 
given back into the hands of the House of Matsumae.) There are varying 
copies of this work and of its sequels in several libraries. Educational 
Museum. Tokugawa. 

324.— *' KyQmei K5ki Furoku,'* ffcO^B^SBW^, by Habuto Seiyo. 1803. 
I Vol. MS. Contains the author^s views on Aino affairs. Educational 

325.—" Kyumei Koki Furoku Bekkan,'' flc BJJ jfe IB Wt ^ J5!l M- 4 Vols. MS. 
An account of the arrival of foreign ships in Itorup and other Northern 
islands. Educational Museum. 

326.—** Kyumei Koki Ik5," ffc 0^ jfe IB jlfll- 6 Vols. MS. Treats of the pro- 
ductions of the Southern Kuriles, and of Russian intrusion in those parts. 
Educational Museum. 

327. — *• Les Ai'nos," by Mermet de Cachon. Paris, 1863. i pamphet. A 

lively sketch of Aino manners and customs. 
328.— "Manshu Bunzu/' f^ j^i ^^, by Mamiya Rinzo. i Vol. MS- A very 

rough map or rather picture, of Manchuria. It gives distances, and also 

marks the spots where battles had been fought against the Russians. 


329. — '* Materialien zur Anthropologic Ostasiens,^' article by Anutschin in the 
tenth number of the " Russische Revue." 

330. — ** Matsuda Mamiya Ryonin Karafuto Kembun Moshi-age-sho," :^ Q ^ 
§iPSA^^^ ^ Ma^ ^ JLWtf Matsuda Denjuro and Mamiya Rinzo. 
I Vol. MS. A diary of a journey in Saghalien. Hakodate. 

331. — '* Matsumae Chi narabi ni Higashi Ezo Chi Meisaiki,'' ^"^ iSL^^Wi 
^ ^ ^ ^ IB- I Vol. MS. Contains topographical information concerning 
Southern and Eastern Yezo. Sapporo. 

332. — '* Matsumae Chi narabi ni Nishi Ezo Chi Meisaiki,'' fetJ^#l5tSII 
^^^IB- ' Vol. MS. Contains topographical information concerning 
Southern and Western Yezo. Sapporo. 

333-—*' Matsumae Ezo Ki,*' fe flj *S K IB- i Vol. MS. Treats of the geography 
and productions of Yezo. Bureau of History. 

Digitized by 



334'—'' Matsumae Ezo Sojo ni tsuki Go Yo-dome/' fe fi^ Jg ^ !^ S ^ft Wt ffl 
^, by Kida Magodayu. 1661. 2 Vols. MS. An official report on the 
preparations made against a revolt of the Ainos in the jurisdiction of 
Matsumae in the year 1661. Hakodate. 

335.—'' Matsumae Fukuyama no Sho-Okite," :^ tJ ffi ill M JS- ^ Vol. MS. A 
collection of the laws and regulations of the House of Matsumae 

336. — '* Matsumae Hisetsu," ^g^^l^- 1839. i Vol. MS. Contains regu- 
lations concerning fisheries, sea-weed fisheries, and the daily occupations 
of the Ainos. Sapporo. 

337. — *' Matsumae Hogen Ko/' fe tj >'6r W ^» ^7 ^^^ fisherman Kichizo. 1848. 
2 Vols. MS. Gives the names for various kinds of fish, etc., in the Yezo 
patois of Japanese. Educational Museum. 

338. — '* Matsumae Kaechi Shutsuyaku, narabi ni Goson no Ki," ^t$#;N&tti 
S # IS5 # :S^ SB- 1856. I Vol. MS. Statistical information collected on 
the occasion of the assumption of the management of the affairs of Yezo 
by the Central Government. Tokugawa. 

339. — '* Matsumae Kaki," :fetJ^ IB- 2 Vols. MS. A record of the House of 
Matsumae from A.D. 1457 ^^ 1870, compiled by the noble House itself. 

340.— '* Matsumae Ki,'' :fet^ E- '' Mogami Tokunai no Den,'' ;R±|S ft It- 
''Tokai Santan," 3|t^^f|[. MSS. in i Vol. The first two are anony- 
mous and without date. The third is by Ton^i Genshin, and is dated 1805. 
These MSS. give a history of the House of Matsumae, and an account of 
Yezo and the Ainos. Hakodate. 

341.— '^ Matsumae Nishi Ezo-chi Kaigan Ezu," ^MlSWiMiikM ^M U- 
Anonymous and without date. MSS. Scrolls. Outline maps of the West 
coast of Yezo. Bureau of History. 

342. — ^*** Matsumae Oki no Kuchi yori Itaru Zu," |{^tJiijJ>^D3 *-^^^-lS>*^ 
|g. I Scroll MS. A curious map of Matsumae. Bureau of History. 

343. — " Matsumae Shi," fetJ 5S» ^y Minamoto no Hironaga. 1781. 10 Vols. 
MS. A work on the geography and natural history of the dominion of 
Matsumae. Bureau of History. 

344.—'' Matsumae Shi Keifu," ^Wi R'^^W- ^ Vol. MS. Contains the gene- 
alogy of the House of Matsumae from the year 880. An appendix gives 
the annals of the family from 1191 to 1789. Hakodate. 

345. — *' Matsumae Shima no Kami Kyosho narabi ni Ezo-chi Kaibo On Todoke- 

shor um^^mss^MmnmmmmwmMw- ivolms. Despatches 

relative to the precautions taken against the Russians in the North. 

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346.— " Matsumae So-chizu/' ^t^t&^li- i MS. Sheet. A map of the 
possessions of the House of Matsumae in Yezo. Bureau of History. 

347.—** Matsumae Tobo Chirishi/' ^'^M:ti^M^' i Vol. MS. Geography 
of the Eastern portion of the domain of Matsumae. Educational Museum. 

348. — "Matsumae Tozai Chiri/' ^B^%lS:%3^i by Takahashi Soshiro and 
four collaborators. 1797. i Vol. MS. A geographical work on the por- 
tion of Yezo subject to the House of Matsumae. It also contains notes on 
the depth of harbours, the productions of the various places on the coast, 
etc. Hakodate. 

349. — "Matsumae Tozai Kanki," ^f^^lS^EI- 1788 or 1789. i Vol. 
MS. Statistics of the villages, houses, and temples in the dominions of the 
Daimyo of Matsumae in the latter part of the i8th century. Hakodate. 

350. — "Matsumae Tozai Mura-mura Chimei Kaigan Risu Sho," ^t^Xfl^ 
^ iSL^M^.E,Wi1t' 2 Vols. MS. A list of names of places and of 
distances in Yezo, Saghalien, and the Southern Kuriles. Hakodate. 

351. — "Mezamashi," @ "^ "J L- About 1807. i Vol. MS. Details con- 
cerning the officials sent to Itorup to meet the Russians and take delivery 
of some Japanese sailors who had been picked up at sea. Educational 

352. — " Michinoku Kiji," 1^ t) < |B ^, by Koiso. Some time between 
1661 and 1673. " Oku no Araumi,*' il { O h f> ^y by Chogetsu. 1717. 
I Vol. MS. The first of these two short works is a diary of a journey from 
Yedo to the North of Japan. The second is an account of a journey from 
the Kuriles to Kyoto. Hakodate. 

353.—^' [Mineta Sei] Ezo Kibun,*' ^ffl^*S^lJSW» by Mineta. i Vol. 
MS. Contains various items of information concerning Yezo, that were 
brought to the author's notice during an official tour in the island. Hakodate. 

354. — " Mizou Koki," ^#^^16. 3 Vols. MS. An account of the second 
visit of the Russians to Yezo waters. Bureau of Records. 

355. — "Mizou no Ki," ^'B'^jJlffi, by Toyama Kinshiro. 1799. 2 Vols. 
MS. A full diary of a journey in Eastern Yezo, together with a diary of 
the journey from Yedo to Matsumae and back. Hakodate. 

356. — "Moeurs des Aino, insulaires de Y^zo et des Kouriles." Paris, 1857. 
Quoted by von Schrenck. 

357.— "Moi Tokanki," ^ 5|;^3|ffi, by Yamazaki and Saito. 1804. i Vol. 
MS. A work on Eastern Yezo and its inhabitants. Hakodate. 

358.— "M5jin Seia Dan,'' ^A^MM. by " Tambu Inshi." 1788. i Vol. 
MS. Notes on Rin Shihei's well-known " San-goku Tsuran." Matsumae. 

359. — * " Moshiogusa," H ^ J^. By the Interpreter Uehara Kumajiro and 

Digitized by 



the Administrator Abe Chozaburo. 1804. i Vol. print. The best-known 
Japanese vocabulary of Aino words and phrases. Tokugawa. Chamberlain. 

360. — ^ " Murray's Handbook for Japan/' by E. M. Satow and A. G. S. Hawes. 
London, 1884. i Vol. Gives itineraries and descriptions of some routes 
in Yezo. 

361.—*' Mutsu KikS," PiUfcfTi by Hotta Settsu-no-Kami Norimasa. i Vol. 
MS. A journal of travel in the North of the Main Island and in Yezo. 

362. — *' Newe und Wahrhaftige Relation von dem, was sich in Beederley d.i. 
in den West — und Ostindien zugetragen, u.s.w./'by Eliud Nicolai. Munich, 
1 61 9. I Vol. Quoted by Ph. von Siebold as the earliest European work 
in which the Island of Yezo is explicitly mentioned. 

363. — '* Nippon, Archiv zur Beschreibung von Japan und dessen Neben-und 
Schutzlandern," by Ph. Fr. von Siebold. Leyden, begun publishing in 
1835, but not yet completed. Giyes^ fassi/Hj all the information concerning 
Yezo and the Ainos that was available at the period when the author wrote. 

364. — *' Nishibetsu Ikken-gaki," ^^ ^9-^^^^ 1857. 2 Vols. MS. Treats 
of a dispute concerning the possession of the River Nishibetsu in the dis- 
trict of Nemuro, purchased by the Japanese from the Ainos. Educational 

365.—" Nishi Ezo-chi Basho Uke-oi Yori Kaki-age," lg*S^^JJ|J5r5ft * 
^-'SJl- 1855. I Vol. MS. A report from the persons to whom the 
fisheries were farmed out on various stations of the coast of Yezo, concern- 
ing the distances of each station from Hakodate, its climate, and the proper 
season for catching the various sorts of fish. Hakodate. 

366.—'' Nishi Ezo-chi Kotei," Btg^^trS. i Vol. MS. Gives the distances 
from place to place between Matsumae and Shiretoko. Hakodate. 

367.— '< Nishi Ezo Kaigan K5teiki," BJg^ia^ffSffi) i Vol. MS. Geo- 
graphical details concerning the west coast of Yezo as far as Takashima. 
Educational Museum. 

368.— ^' Nishi Ezo Nikki," BJg^HlB, by Toy am a Kinjiro. i Vol. MS. 
Diary of an official tour up the west coast of Yezo to Soya. Educational 

369.—*' Nishi Ezo Nisshi," B Jg ^ H |S» by Matsuura Takeshiro. 6 Vols, 
print. Illustrated. Contains topographical and geographical information 
concerning Western Yezo. Tokugawa. Sapporo. 

370.—" Nishi Ezo Takashima Nikki," B Jg ^ ig ^ H IB, hy Kuwayama Ihei. 
4 Vols. MS. Diary of a journey up the West coast of Yezo from Matsumae 
to Takashima. Educational Museum. 

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371. — "Ni-so Danki," Zll^H^. 5 Vols. MS. An enquiry into the place- 
names of the Island of Itorup. Educational Museum. 

372. — '* Noshappu Nisshi/' ^ ^j^ ^ B IS* ^7 Matsuura Takeshiro. i860, i 
Vol. print illustrated. An account of the geography and productions of the 
promontory of Noshap in North-Eastern Yezo, and of the customs of the 
natives. Tokugawa. Chamberlain. 

373. — '* Notes on Japanese Archaeology/* by Henry von Siebold. Yokohama, 
I Vol. illustrated. This work discusses incidentally the share which should 
be attributed to the Ainos in the prehistoric remains found in Japan, such 
as stone implements, shell-heaps, etc. 

374. — * *' Notes on Stone Implements from Otaru and Hakodate, with a few 
general remarks on the Prehistoric Remains of Japan," by John Milne. 
Paper read nth Nov. 1879, and published in the "Transactions of the 
Asiatic Society Japan," Vol. VIII. Part L Illustrated. Brings forward 
archaeological evidence to show that the Ainos once inhabited the whole 
of Japan. 

375. — *^ Notes on the Ainu," by J. Batchelor. Paper read 8th March, 1882, and 
published in Vol. X. Part II. of the " Transactions of the Asiatic Society of 
Japan." A short sketch of the customs and beliefs of the Ainos of Southern 

376. — * " Notes on the Koro-pok-guru or Pit-Dwellers of Yezo and the Kurile 
Islands," by J. Milne. Paper read 12th January, 1882, and published 
in Vol. X. Part II. of the '* Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan." 
Treats of the remains of the aborigines who are supposed to have preceded 
the Ainos in Yezo and the Kuriles. 

377.— "O Kobito Metsuke Kasawara Godayu Ezo Hikki," ^)Jn A S P^SPM 
3Sl:fc^JS ^ ^ SB- I Vol. MS. An account of the termination of cer- 
tain troubles in Yezo, of presents made to the Ainos, etc. Tokugawa. 

378. — '' Oku no Michi-kusa," ^-^ ^ Jg 1^, by Fukui Yoshimaro. i Vol. 
MS. illustrated. A diary of a voyage among the northern islands with 
illustrations of natural objects, of fishing-gear, etc. Educational Museum. 

379. — *' Oku no Nisshi," ;(t ^ B |S. by Toyama Kinshiro. 1799. i Vol. 

MS. Diary of a journey in Yezo. Bureau of Records. 
380.—'' [Omura Jigohei] Kuchi-gaki," :kH^^^tJ^» by Ogura Jigohei. 

1807. I Vol. MS. An account of the Russian raid on Itorup in 1807 by a 

Japanese who was taken prisoner. Bureau of History. 

381. — "On the Arrow Poison in use among the Ainos of Yezo," by Stuart 
Eldridge. Paper read •19th January, 1876, and published in Vol. IV., of the 
** Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan." 

382.—" Orosha-jin Ezo Ranki," fi^H^RAJS^aiB. 3 Vols. MS. A report 

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1 68 

by the Matsumae Government to the Shogun's Government on Russian 
aggressions in Saghalien. Educational Museum. 

383.—'' Orosha-jin Osetsu Joshin Sho/' ^}^M AM^ Jl^Wt- A report 
of the interrogatory by Japanese officials of the Russians on Itorup. 
Educational Museum. 

384.—'' Orosha Tori-kawase Kaki-tsuke/' ^ |i S*? A K^ ^ ^ *^ft- i Vol. 
MS. Contains correspondence between the Mayor of Hakodate and the 
Censors of Matsumae on the one hand, and the captain of a Russian man- 
of-war on the other, touching a recent act of Russian armed aggression, 
together with a discussion on the subject of an exchange of prisoners. 

385. — " Oshima Hikki," JS g> Sp IB- 2 Vols. MS. An account of Aino customs, 
and of the troubles in Kunashiri in 1789. Bureau of History. 

386.— ''Raii Hijitsuroku,'* ^^|g^^. 1799. i Vol. MS. An account of 
official Japanese efforts to civilize the Ainos. Educational Museum. 

387. — " Recherches sur la Flore Aino,'' by H. de Charencey, in the '* Actes de 
la Socidt6 Philologique,'* Tome II., Jany. 1873. Quoted by Pfizmaier. 

388. — ^" Reisen und Forschungen im Amur-lande." L. von Schrenck. Vol. III. 
contains, passim, much valuable information collected from every hitherto 
available source concerning the Ainos. It also treats of the Japanese in 
Saghalien. There is a copy in the library of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir 
Natur-und Volkerkunde Ostasiens. 

389. — " Report of Progress of the Yesso Geological Surveys for 1875. By B. 
S. Lyman, Tokei, 1877. i Vol. print. Published by the Kaitakushi. 

390. — " Report of the Trigonometrical Survey of the Island of Hokkaido for 
1875," by Lieut. M. D. Day, U.S.N. New York, 1876. i Vol. print. 

391. — ^*" Reports and Official Letters to the Kaitakushi,'' by Horace Capron, 
Commissioner and Adviser, and his Foreign Assistants. T6ky6, 1875. i 
Vol. This valuable compilation, published by the Kaitakushi, contains re- 
ports and letters by Messrs. Capron, Lyman, Munroe, Day, Wasson, 
Kuroda, and Bohmer on the geology, botany, survey, mines, etc., of Yezo. 

392. — *' Rerum a Societate Jesu in Oriente Gestarum Volumen," by Ludwig 
Froes. Cologne, 1574. i Vol. Quoted by Ph. von Siebold as the earliest 
European work in which the hairy Ainos are alluded to. 

393- — '* Retsuzo Furoku," 5(1 |ft Pff ^, by Minamoto no Hironaga. 1790. i 
Vol. MS. An account of the various rebellions of the Ainos against the 
Japanese, from the time of Yamatotake-no-Mikoto downwards. It gives 
the names of a number of noted Aino chiefs. Hakodate. 

394. — "Rosen Nyukoki," #j|SAf#t£- Some time between 1848 and 1854. 
I Vol. MS. An account of the arrival of a Russian man-of-war in Hako- 

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date, and of the pourparlers between the Russians and the Japanese 
officials. Hakodate. 

395.— '* Rosha-jin Karafuto Torai Ikken/^ J&ffiSSA^^:^ ^JS^ — #> 
by Hori Oribe and Muragaki Yosaburo. i Vol. MS. illustrated. An 
account of the construction of temporary dwelling-places by the Russians 
on the island of Kushunkotan, and of their removal at the request of the 
Japanese officials. Hakodate. 

396. — '* Rosha-sen Tochaku," jgL^ g£ jjg ^j ^, 1792 — 1794. i Vol. MS. An 
account of the visit of a Russian ship to Nemuro, where she landed some 
Japanese who had been picked up sea. Bureau of History. 

397. — '* Rosha-sen yori Modoru Bannin Moshi-kuchi," J§^15SSj|B[a ^) M ^ 
^ A ^ P- I Vol. MS. An account by the wardens of the Islands of 
Saghalien and Itorup of their Russian captivity. Hakodate. 

398. — ^'* Russian Descents in Saghalien and Itorup in the Years 1806 and 
1807/* by W. G. Aston. Paper read 7th June, 1873, and published in Vol. 
I. of the " Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan.** 

399.—** Saguchi S5shiro J5sho," ^ n ^K J^R J: ^ 1086. i Vol. MS. (It 
also contains other extraneous matter.) A memorial on the geography, 
etc., of Yezo, written Apropos of the Russian demand for a delimitation of 
the frontier in the year 1805. Hakodate. 

400.— *'*San-goku TsGran Zusetsu," H S M S2 ^'^' by Rin Shihei. 1785. 
I Vol. print illustrated. Long the standard work on Korea, Loochoo, Yezo, 
and the Bonin Islands. Bureau of History. Chamberlain. 

401.— ^^San-goku TsGran Ho," H® ME fli/'I<imura Shi Hikki,";|^;H-iF*IB. 
J 798, by Kimura Ken. i Vol. MS. The first of these short works con- 
tains notes on Aino customs, also on Russia and Kamschatka. The second 
is a diary of travel in Yezo. Hakodate. 

402.— '* San-goku Tsuran Hoi," H^MSSIlit- ^ Vol. MS. Apparently 
identical with the '' San-goku Tsuran Ho." Bureau of History. 

403.— '^Sanko Ezo Nishi,'' H ^ tS K H IS, by Matsuura Takeshiro. 1849. 
8 Vols. MS. A diary of travels in Kunashiri and Itorup. Tokugawa. 

404.— *'Saiko Ezo Nisshi." :^^WiM BIS, by Matsuura TakeshirS. 1846- 
185 1. 5 Vols. MS. A diary of travels up the West coast of Yezo to Soya, 
and across to Saghalien. Tokugawa. 

405.— " Seihokuroku narabi ni JGi," in^MWi^^i by '• Fukafushinsai." 6 
Vols. MS. Treats of Russian visits to Itorup and Kunashiri. Bureau of 

406.— *' Sekiso no Kurigoto," ^B.^W.m' ^ Vol. MS. Treats of the es- 
tablishment of relations with the Russians and of the delimitation of the 
possessions of Russia and Japan. Tokugawa. 

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407 ._" Shibuchari Ezo Hoki ni tsuki Shutsujin Sho/' iifiE^5N*S^i$* ^ 
ftffiPP#- ^796- ^ ^^^- MS. An account of a revolt of the Ainos of 
Shibuchari, and of its suppression by the Lord of Matsumae. Hakodate. 

408.— "[Shigaraki Kans5] Hikki," ff Ml Kl H S(E K, by Shigaraki Kanso. 1807. 
I Vol. Diary of an official tour in Urup. Matsumae. 

409._**Shin Kita Ezo-chi Kaiho Nikki/' ff^fcjg ^ jfi^ fi H K- 1857. 2 
Vols. MS. (The book contains other uninteresting matter.) Contains 
various information concerning travels in the island, intercourse with the 
Russians, etc. Hakodate. 

410. — *'Shinra Kiroku/' ^H^i^. i Vol. MS. An account, from secret 
family documents, of the origin of the House of Matsumae. Matsumae. 

41 1. — "Shiranu Matsumae-Banashi/' >5 ^ fe t^f ^» by Tokura Genko. i Vol. 
MS. An account of troubles in Kunashiri. Tokugawa. 

412. — "Shiretoko Nisshi,'* ^ J5|c |^, by Matsuura Takeshiro. i860, i Vol. 
print. Illustrated. An account of the geography and productions of the 
promontory of Shiretoko in North-Eastern Yezoand of the natives. Toku- 
gawa. Sapporo. 

413.—" Shirlbeshi Nisshi," ^:fy^U BtB, by Matsumae Takeshiro. 1859. 
I Vol. MS. illustr. An account of the geography and productions of the 
province of Shiribeshi in Yezo, and of the customs of the natives. Toku- 
gawa. Hakodate. 

414. — *'Shiroku Nikki,*' P9 7^ H IE» by Matsuda Nisabur5. 1799. 2 Vols. 
MS. Diary of an official tour from Matsumae to Northern Yezo and Itorup. 
Educational Museum. 

415.— '^ShiryGchi-mura Ono Tosa Nikki," ^ ft #::feflp±'^ H U- i Vol. 
MS. An account of the township of Shiryuchi from the year 1205, ^^''^'^ 
special reference to the gold found there. Hakodate. 

416.— ''Shoka Fubun,*' feSSffi^- 1838. i Vol. MS. Information, chiefly 
statistical, concerning the Island of Yezo. Tokugawa. 

417.— ''Shok5 Ezo Nisshi," ^fglWiMBW* by Matsuura Takeshiro. 1846- 
1850. IT Vols. MS. A diary of a journey up the East coast of Yezo as 
far as Nemuro. Tokugawa. 

418.—^' Shozenka Ezo Kiko,*' :fe tJ T *S ^ ijfi fi, by Yamazaki Hanzo. 1805- 
1806. I Vol. A diary of travels in Yezo. It forms Vol. XVI. of a work 
entitled *' Bunshu Roku." Bureau of History. 

419.—'' ShGhokuroku/^ 3p$fl:^, by Takatsu Taihei. 1857. i Vol. print. This 
work, which is in Chinese, was apparantly written in 1841 from recollec- 
tions of a journey to Yezo made early in the century on the occasion of an 
act of aggression on the part of the Russians, against whom the author 
suggests plans of repulse. Chamberlain. 

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420.— "Soyaku Nihon Kiji/' H JB H *• i(C^. 1817. 2 Vols. MS. A trans- 
lation of a Russian work, the name of whose author is given as Kotsu- 
roin. It is apparently Golownin's account of his captivity in Japan 
during the years 181 1 to 1813. — A copy at the Bureau of History is in 10 
Vols. Hakodate. 

421.—" Tanka Roku/' SJ Jg ^. 2 (or 3) Vols. MS. illustrated. This work, 
which is in Chinese, treats of the aspect of nature in Yezo and of the 
customs of the natives. The author introduces some of his own poetry. 
Educational Museum Sapporo.. 

422— **Teibo Hikki," T DH ^ IE- About 1807. i Vol. MS. An account of 
the Russian descent on Itorup in 1807. Educational Museum. 

423. — " Tekikan Jiryaku," |ltl8^.^, by Ashiwara Michimaro. 7 Vols. MS. 
A detailed account of Russian aggression in Yezo, Saghalien and Kunashiri, 
and of the diplomatic action consequent thereon. Educational Museum. 

424.—*' Temmei Rokunen Ezo Kembun Ki," 5^ HJ /? ^ Jg ^ ;g. W IB- '' Kita 
Ezo FadoS6k5,"4l;JS^a±:^m- ^'Matsumae Ryakkei,'' ^"^^M- 
"Honda Shi Shagushain Ikki Kaki-Tome," :^^R^^^^'VA V— g|S 
"1^, by Honda Saburoemon. In or about 1786. Four MSS. i Vol. Con- 
tains an account of the Ainos, a genealogy of the House of Matsumae, and 
an account of an Aino rebellion under a chief named Shagushamu in the lat- 
ter part of the first half of the i8th century. Hakodate. 

425.— "Teshio Nisshi,'' 5^MH|g, by Matsuura Takeshiro. 1861. i Vol. 
print. Illustrated. An account of the geography and productions of the 
province of Teshio in Yezo, and of the customs of the natives. Tokugawa. 

426. — " The Aino Language," by J. M. Dixon, MA. Two short articles in the 
February and March 1883 numbers of the " Chrysanthemum/' containing 
an outline of Aino Grammar. 

427. — ** The Ainos : Aborigines of Yeso," by St. John. Paper published in the 
Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 
Quoted by von Schrenck. 

428. — " The Ainos or Hairy Men of Jesso, Saghalien, and the Kurile Islands," 
by Alb. Bickmore. Paper in the American Journal of Science, May 1868. 
Quoted by von Schrenck as advocating the view that the Ainos are of 
Aryan origin. 

429. — "The Bear-Worshippers of Yezo and the Island of Karafuto." By 
Edward Greey. i Vol. illustrated. A book intended chiefly for children. 
The illustrations are good. 

430. — ^*"The Stone Age in Japan," by John Milne.. Paper published in the 

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Journal of the Anthropological Society, May, 1881. Illustrated. This 
paper attributes most of the stone implements, shell-heaps, etc., of Japan 
to the Ainos, who, the author thinks, were the original inhabitants of the 
whole country. 

431. — "The Tsuishikari Ainos," by J' M. Dixon. Paper read 8th November, 
1882, and published in Vol. XI. of the *' Transactions of the Asiatic Society 
of Japan. '* 

432.— '^ T5datsu Kik5," M^^fi^ by Mamiya R'lnid. 1808. 3 Vols. MS. 
An account of a journey vid Yezo to Saghalien and the coast of Tartary. 
Bureau of History. Educational Museum. 

433.— "Togeki Shihitsu," 'M^U^, by Nariishi Shi. 1857. 3 Vols. MS. 
An account of the new impulse given to the development of Yezo, owing 
its being placed under the immediate supervision of the Shogun's Govern- 
ment. Bureau of Records. 

434.—'* T5hoku Dattan Shokoku Zushi,'' :^4k#||^®i||g, " Yasaku Zak- 
ki,*' if j^JIIB, by Baba Teiyu. i Vol. MS., about 1787. A translation 
of foreign documents relative to Yezo, Saghalien, and the Kurile Islands. 

435. — "Tohoku Dattan Shokoku Zushi Ezo Zakki Yakusetsu," 3K4t^fB^ 
S^fSSfj^^EEitS;- Translated [from the Russian ?] by Baba 
Sadayoshi. 1809. 2 Vols. MS. This work defends the mental powers of 
the Ainos, asserting the latter to be intellectually equal to the Chinese, 
Japanese, and Tartars. Sapporo. 

436.— " Tohokui Yochishi,'' M^tMM^llW- i Vols. MS. Contains, besides 
geographical information on Yezo and the other islands inhabited by the 
Ainos, a list of Chinese characters chosen from standard works and sug- 
gested by the author as suitable for writing the place-names of Aino-land. 
The selection of these characters was made by order of the Government. 

437.—'' Tohoku Kibunryaku,'' ^ 4k ilfi ^ W- ^ Vol. MS. Treats of the customs 
of Saghalien, Manchuria, and Russia. Educational Museum. 

438.— "Toi Meishoki," MM^Jlfftt- 5 Vols. MS. A diary of a journey 

from Matsumae to Esashi with notes at second-hand on the Ainos. 

439.— ' Toi Sessetsu Yawa,^' MM^Wi^ti- ^2 Vols. MS. A record of the 

interrogatory by Japanese officials of thirteen Russians who had landed on 

the Island of Itorup. Educational Museum. 

440. — ''Tokachi Nisshi," +0 1^, by Matsuura Takeshir5. i860, i Vol. 
print, illustrated. An account of the geography and productions of the 
province of Tokachi in Ezo, and of the customs of the natives. Tokugawa. 

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441.—'- Tokachi ShQ Ryaku Shisetsu/^ + :l^1 S SS ^- i Vol. MS. Treats 
of the geography of Yezo and the customs of the natives. Sapporo. 

442.— ^' To-Oku HensQIji/' iSH ^ ffi it ^, by Ishizaka Habuku. 2 Vols. 
MS. An account of the Russian descent on Itorup. Educational Museum. 

443.—" ToyQki/' :^ ailB, by '' Tomo Sanjin/* 1784. 1 (or 2) Vols. MS. A 
diary of a journey in Northern Japan and in Yezo. Educational Museum. 

444.— "ToyQ Zakki/' [^jKJItE, by FurukawaKoshoken. 1788. 6 Vols. MS. 
A general'work an Yezo written from personal observation during a jour- 
ney through the island. Educational Museum. 

445.—** T5zai Ezo Sansen Chiri Tori-Shirabe-Zu/' M'®1&M]ii)^\*SLMMW 
|g, by Matsumae Takeshiro. 1859. 28 Sheets print. Detailed maps of 
Yezo and the Southern Kuriles, in Japanese style, and with all the names 
in Kana together with letter-press giving geographical and statistical 
information. Tokugawa. Chamberlain. 

446. — *** Trigonometrical Survey Map of the Island of Hokkaido," by Lieut. 
M. S. Day, U.S.N. 1875. i Sheet print. There are different editions of 
this map, Japanese and English, large and small, coloured and uncoloured. 

447. — '*Tsubo no Ishi Kohen," ^ (7) VI J^^^, by Matsuura Takeshiro. 1856. 
I Vol. print. Gives information, in tabular form, of distances, names of 
villages and Japanes'e fishing-stations, etc., in Yezo. Hakodate. 

448. — "Tsuko Ichiran," jj )^ — ^. Apparently previous to 1830. 26 Vols. 
MS. illustrated. A minute account of Russian aggression in Yezo, Sagha- 
lien, and the Kuriles. Sapporo. 

449. — "Tsuko Ichiran Zokushu," Jfi JK"^^8lt5- Dates from between 1830 
and 1844. 10 Vols. MS. illustrated. It is a sequel to the preceding work. 

450. — " Ueber des Vorkommen der Kreideformation auf der Insel Yezo." By 
E. Naumaun. Paper published in the " Mittheilungen der Deutschen 
Gesellschaft fiir Natur-und Volkerkunde Ostasiens," August 1880. It 
discusses the cretaceous formations of the Island of Yezo. 

451. — *" Unbeaten Tracks in Japan." By Isabella L. Bird. London 1880. 2 
Vols. The second volume contains a graphic and picturesque account of 
the author's short sojourn among the Ainos, of the customs of the people, 
and of the scenery of South-Eastern Yezo. 

452. — '* Untersuchungen uber Aino-Gegenstande." By A. Pfizmaier. Vienna, 
1883. I Vol. Treats chiefly of Aino beliefs and of the botanj of Aino-land. 

453. — *' Untersuchungen iiber den Bau der Aino-Sprache." By Dr. August 
Pfizmaier. Vienna. 1851. i Vol. An attempt at a grammar of the 
Aino language, founded on the Japanese vocabulary *' Moshiogusa." 

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454. — ** Usu Yamayake/' ^ ^ ll] j^- i Vol. MS. Diary of an eruption of 
Mount Usu in Yezo, written by a Buddhist priest attached to the temple 
of Zenkoji in that locality. Bureau of Records. 

455. — *' Vocabulaire A'lno de Hakodate," by Furet. Quoted by Pfizmaier. 

456. — ** Vocabularium der Aino-Spache/' by A. Pfizmaier. 

457. — "Wortersammlung aus der Sprache der Aino*s, der Bewohner der Halb- 
insel Sachalin, der Insel Jesso und der siidlichen Kurilen/^ by Davidow, a 
Russian. The above vocabulary was edited and published, not in the original 
Russian, but in German, as part of a larger work entitled **Wortersamm- 
lungen aus den Sprachen einiger Volker des Oestlichen Asiens und der 
Nordwest-Kiiste von Amerika. Bekannt gemacht von A. J. von Krusen- 
stern, Capitan der russisch-kaiserlichen Marine. St. Petersburg, 1813." 
It contains about 2,000 Aino words, and is the subject-matter of Pfiz- 
maier's ** Kritische Durchsicht." 

458.— "Yajin Dokuwa,'* SfAJBU- i Vol. MS. A comic appeal to the 
Japanese to keep out the Russians, who had made themselves detested by 
their raid on Itorup. Hakodate. 

459. — *'Yubari Nisshi." ^ 5S H |S» by Matsuura TakeshirS. i860, i Vol. 
print. Illustrated. An account of the geography and productions of the 
district of Yubari in Central Yezo, and of the customs of the natives. 
Tokugawa. Chamberlain. 

460.—'' Yuhoku Kibun," /^ fc ft ffl. i Vol. MS. Treats of the defence of the 
coast of Yezo, of Russian aggression, and of the advantage of opening ports 
to foreign trade. Sapporo. 

461. — " Zakki," ^ffi. 3 Vols. MS. Contains statistics for the year 1857, and 
notices of the taxes gathered at the beginning of the present century. 

462.—'* Zoku Ezo-jima Kikan," ^ Jg ^ ^ ^|ft. i Sheet MS. A sequel to 
the '* Ezo-jima Kikan." Bureau of Records. 

463. — " Zoku Ezo Soshi," i^ jg ^ ;^ !£, by Kondo Morishige. 1804. i Vol. 
MS. A sequel to the ** Ezo Soshi," treating of the religion and natural 
history of Yezo and the islands to the North. Sapporo. 

464.— ''Zoku Mizou KolaV^ t^^'^^^ti- 2 Vols. MS.- An account of 
the Russian depredations in Itorup. Bureau of Records. 

465.—*' Zoku Miz5u no Ki,*' ^ ^ W W © IB' ^y Toyama Kinshiro. 5 Vols. 
MS. A sequel to the " Mizou no Ki." Gives the diary of an official tour 
in Yezo. Bureau of History. 

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<0£ciJl./. Yh,f<J-ti 





No. I. 





Professor of Japanese and Philology in the Imperial University; 





Church Missionary Society; 


1887 (20TH YEAR OF MeIJI). 


Tokyo ; 

Pkinieh at iHt •* JArAN Mail" Office, Yokohama. 

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Case f Shelf 6. 


Peabody Museum of American Arohaology and Ethnology 


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L80CJt.14t.SJ (1) 

TV Itn^y . myMojy, and mop* 

3 2044 043 094 861 

This book is not to be 
taken from the Ubrary 

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